Is lasix for dogs the same as for humans

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The rapid spread of the novel hypertension disrupted many lasix afib standard processes and protocols in hospitals across the can you get lasix over the counter country. Likewise, the lasix disrupted clinical and operational workflows for pharmacies, forcing pharmacists to discover new ways of performing common tasks to protect care team members and the community.THE PROBLEMWatching the impact can you get lasix over the counter of hypertension medications across the country, leaders at Murray, Utah-based Intermountain Medical Center quickly created a remote pharmacy services plan prior to a rapid rise of hypertension cases in Utah. The plan was designed to limit the risk of exposure to the lasix and mitigate potential staffing shortages due to illness or quarantine.The goals were to protect the general public, patients, clinical pharmacists and other caregivers while maintaining high standards of pharmacy clinical services."Proactive measures helped ensure pharmacy personnel had appropriate remote access and were equipped with the right technology and resources that enabled them to participate remotely in daily patient care rounds and consults and in verifying medication orders and delivering medication education to patients," said Gabe Fontaine, PharmD, clinical pharmacy can you get lasix over the counter coordinator, critical care medicine, at Intermountain Medical Center, and an associate professor at Intermountain Healthcare.PROPOSALIntermountain Medical Center is a level I trauma center, which includes a comprehensive stroke center. It serves four surrounding states and is the largest of Intermountain Healthcare's 25 hospitals.

It has 504 inpatient beds and 80 emergency department beds with approximately 90,000 annual ED visits.When the remote pharmacy services plan was implemented, there were 157 pharmacy staff, can you get lasix over the counter including 73 pharmacists and 7 residents."The plan, designed by a multidisciplinary team, was a hybrid of remote and on-site pharmacy services," Fontaine explained. "It was created to prevent exposure and subsequent illness, proactively address potential staffing shortages, and ensure uninterrupted clinical pharmacy services."As more was learned about the spread of the lasix, the hospital can you get lasix over the counter developed a rotating schedule to keep workgroups together on-site and then alternate through remote assignments," he continued. "There were also contingency plans at the ready if a certain number of pharmacists became ill or required quarantine.""The technology was critical for clinicians to connect with the right team member, especially if the contingency staffing plan was in place."Gabe Fontaine, PharmD, Intermountain HealthcareThe plan outlined the strategies that Intermountain Medical Center would implement to consolidate personnel according to the number of healthy pharmacists, and also based on competencies of those available pharmacists."Clinical and IT team members implementing the remote pharmacy services plan knew that its success depended squarely on seamless and effective communication between the pharmacists working remotely and on-site hospital caregivers and patients," he said.MEETING THE CHALLENGETo enable fast and efficient collaboration between remote pharmacists and their clinical colleagues inside the hospital, Intermountain Medical Center relied on the Vocera Badge, a hands-free, voice-controlled communication device that care team members have been using to connect and collaborate.Additionally, staff leveraged their telehealth audio-visual equipment, an integral part of Intermountain's telehealth platform, known as Connect Care Pro, that includes microphones and high-definition video cameras."The wearable Vocera device allows caregivers to call and connect with each other in real time simply by saying a name, role or group," Fontaine explained. "There is no need to remember phone numbers or know who is can you get lasix over the counter on call.

The device also enables users to set reminders, leave messages and forward calls to other mobile devices and landline phones."Incoming calls to remote pharmacists' hands-free devices can you get lasix over the counter were rerouted to their cell phones or soft-phone lines connected to their laptops," he continued. "Remote clinical pharmacists leveraged the technology to contact physicians and other on-site can you get lasix over the counter caregivers to collaborate on patient rounds, consults, clinical recommendations, virtual huddles and patient education."Virtual huddles became essential to identify and address gaps in coverage. Pharmacists working remotely checked in with nursing managers and caregivers, who wore the badges, to proactively address questions and concerns at the point of care. Pharmacists didn't need can you get lasix over the counter to know names or numbers of nurse managers in every unit.

They could simply call can you get lasix over the counter by role."The technology was critical for clinicians to connect with the right team member, especially if the contingency-staffing plan was in place," he said. "Under the contingency-staffing plan, pharmacists and caregivers also used instant messaging software to communicate emergent needs throughout the day."Nurses could instantly connect to their floor or unit-based pharmacist via Vocera to discuss new medication orders, ask questions and relay information from the frontline care teams," he added.RESULTSThe remote pharmacy services model led to an increase in interdisciplinary collaboration on clinical and operational initiatives, largely stemming from improved connectivity between care team members, regardless of location. Given the success of the remote pharmacy services, Intermountain Medical Center plans to extend various features of the program when the lasix recedes.To continue protecting the public, patients and caregivers, Intermountain Medical Center has established an intermittent work-from-home program for pharmacists can you get lasix over the counter who are undergoing hypertension medications testing or exhibiting symptoms."The remote services plan also revealed new uses for its patient-monitoring technology, prompting leadership to enhance those capabilities to improve care for critically ill patients," Fontaine noted. "Additionally, the use of existing audio and visual resources led to increased attendance for clinical team meetings and presentations."ADVICE FOR OTHERS"When time is of the essence, it is important to look at can you get lasix over the counter the resources and technologies already in place and reimagine new ways to use them," Fontaine advised.

"Listen to can you get lasix over the counter frontline healthcare workers at every level of the organization. They often use technology in ways beyond the original intent."By leveraging existing technology resources, Intermountain Medical Center has been able to redesign pharmacy services during a lasix while protecting patients, pharmacists and other caregivers, and preserving excellent clinical pharmacy coverage to support optimal patient care," he added.Other health systems considering process changes to improve their safety protocols could achieve similar outcomes by adopting a comparable approach, but it is important to be proactive, he said. Have the right technologies, can you get lasix over the counter resources and contingency plans in place before the next crisis, he concluded.Twitter. @SiwickiHealthITEmail the writer can you get lasix over the counter.

Bsiwicki@himss.orgHealthcare IT News is a HIMSS Media publication..

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Symptoms vary between people is lasix for dogs the same as for humans. Hearing loss comes in all degrees from mild to profound. But most people, especially older adults, have mild-to-moderate hearing loss, especially the type that makes it harder to hear high-pitched sounds.

In this case, the chief symptom may be difficulty with word understanding, is lasix for dogs the same as for humans especially in noisy situations. Hearing vs. Understanding When your hearing is tested, the results are plotted on an audiogram.

People with is lasix for dogs the same as for humans high-frequency hearing loss are said to have a “sloping” hearing loss. If you have a sloping hearing loss, it means you are able to hear low-pitched sounds (such as thunder), sometimes even as clearly as someone with normal hearing. But, high-pitched sounds (such as children's voices) need to be much louder before you can hear them.

While not always the case, high-frequency hearing loss is often the cause of feeling is lasix for dogs the same as for humans like you can hear but can’t understand. Did you say parrot or ferret?. In speech, the vowel sounds (A, E, I, O and U) are low in pitch while consonant sounds like S, F, Th, Sh, V, K, P and others are high in pitch.

Being able to hear vowel sounds is helpful and will alert you is lasix for dogs the same as for humans that speech is present, but it’s the consonant sounds that give speech meaning and help you distinguish one word from another. Without being able to hear subtle differences between consonants, words like “cat” and “hat,” “parrot” and “ferret” and “show” and “throw” can be hard to differentiate. This is why so many people with age-related hearing loss or excessive noise exposure have difficulty understanding even when they know sound is present.

Trouble hearing with background noise If you feel like is lasix for dogs the same as for humans you can hear but notunderstand speech, it may be an earlysign of hearing loss. If you have a high-frequency hearing loss, you may notice problems understanding speech even in a relatively quiet environment, but when background noise is present or several people are talking at once, it can become nearly impossible to follow a conversation. People with hearing loss may begin to avoid lively social situations or public places they once enjoyed because interacting with others is too difficult.

Signs of high-frequency is lasix for dogs the same as for humans hearing loss When you have a high frequency hearing loss, you may. struggle to follow conversations (hear but can’t understand). Sturggle to hear people on the phone.

Find it hard to watch TV shows is lasix for dogs the same as for humans or movies even when you turn the volume up. Mishear female and young children’s voices not enjoy music because it sounds distorted, especially at higher volumes. Feel like everyone is mumbling more often feel exhausted from listening, known as listening fatigue Family members, friends and work colleagues can get frustrated and feel you aren’t listening to them when they speak to you.

Your spouse may accuse you of having “selective hearing.” You may accuse others is lasix for dogs the same as for humans of mumbling. Sometimes, you will answer questions inappropriately and miss the punch lines of jokes. Other times, you may resort to smiling and nodding when someone speaks to give the impression you are listening when in fact, you do not understand what was just said (see this woman's story for how that plays out in real life).

Untreated hearing loss can take is lasix for dogs the same as for humans a toll on relationships, careers and your daily life. Pass a hearing test but still feel like you can't hear?. If you've taken a hearing test and were told your hearing is fine, don't give up trying to get answers just yet.

Your ears may be fine—but your auditory nerve is lasix for dogs the same as for humans or your brain may have problems processing sounds or other sensory input. For example. Hidden hearing loss Hidden hearing loss is defined as hearing loss that's not detectable on standard hearing tests, which zero in on problems within the ear.

Hidden hearing loss is not is lasix for dogs the same as for humans a problem with the ears—instead, it originates in the brain. Auditory processing disorders (APD) For some people, hearing but not understanding may signal an auditory processing disorder (APD). This means the nervous system—not the ears—struggles to make sense of the sounds coming in from the ears.

APD is often diagnosed in children, but it also can be diagnosed in is lasix for dogs the same as for humans adults. Attention deficit disorder (ADD) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also can make it hard to understand—in the sense that the brain can't quite keep up with all incoming sensory inputs, including and sometimes especially noise. If you have undiagnosed and untreated ADD, you may pass a hearing test just fine, yet feel like you can't understand people, or struggle to follow conversations.

In either case, a hearing aid may help a person with is lasix for dogs the same as for humans APD or ADD focus on the conversation they want to hear most, allowing them to amplify the voice of their preferred speaker (such as a professor). It's worth noting that some people may have ADD or autism and an auditory processing disorder. Don't accept difficult hearing If your hearing test reveals hearing loss, hearing aids can amplify the high pitches you’ve been missing without amplifying low-pitched sounds.

Once you begin wearing hearing aids, you will notice improvement with understanding speech and you may even notice you’re hearing sounds that have long been forgotten is lasix for dogs the same as for humans. For instance, some new hearing aid wearers are pleasantly surprised to hear the soft chirping of songbirds for the first time in years. You will once again be able to hear that beeping sound your microwave makes, your car’s turn signal and your phone ringing.

If you is lasix for dogs the same as for humans can hear, but can’t understand, you’re not alone. This is what hearing care professionals hear almost every day from their patients, and they are highly skilled at getting to the root of the problem, listening to your concerns and finding a solution that meets your needs. Don’t give up on enjoying conversations at work, home and play.

Find a hearing center near you with our directory, and make the call today.A growing body of research suggests that hearing loss contributes is lasix for dogs the same as for humans to falls. For older people, falls are a big fear. As we age, our hearing and balance naturally decline.

More than one in four Americans age 65 or older falls every year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is lasix for dogs the same as for humans reports. Even if you’re not hurt, a tumble is frightening. People tend to retreat to their chairs, which sets off a bad cycle.

You move is lasix for dogs the same as for humans less, you become weaker, and are more likely to fall again. Here’s a simple test of your risk. Stand on one leg.

In a small study of women in their 70s, is lasix for dogs the same as for humans the chance of a hip fracture dropped by 5 percent for every second they could stand on one leg with their eyes open. Hearing and balance. How they're connected How does hearing fit in?.

What you hear (and don’t hear) directly affects your balance, according to a research overview led by Anat Lubetzky, PhD, assistant professor in the is lasix for dogs the same as for humans Physical Therapy Department at New York University, with a team at New York Eye and Ear Infirmary. This is especially important if your balance isn’t the best. €œMost of us in the field believe that people with poor balance benefit a lot from auditory cues,” Timothy Hullar, MD, a professor of otolaryngology at Oregon Health and Science University, told me.

Hearing loss increases the risk of falls I know this from experience. I have hearing loss, and is lasix for dogs the same as for humans I’ve fallen twice on hikes. I have a bit of reputation with my hiking group.

A few years ago, I tripped on a small stone—and fell over what looked like a cliff. Once I landed, I recall a is lasix for dogs the same as for humans flood of relief. As I looked up at the horrified faces of my hiking companions, I saw a large boulder with a sharp edge coming my way.

I had dislodged it. It was worse for them than for me is lasix for dogs the same as for humans. I recall thinking, “So that was my life!.

Maybe there is a heaven.” The rock landed on my neck and because it wasn’t my time to die, it only left a scratch. Even mild hearing loss can affect fall is lasix for dogs the same as for humans risk My hearing loss is mild—but that counts. A 25-decibel hearing loss—equivalent to going from normal to mild hearing loss—triples your chance of falling according to a study of people aged 40 to 69.

That’s when hearing loss often first develops and you’re less likely to guard against falls. Another study, from a team at the University of Michigan, analyzed data on nearly 115,000 seniors newly diagnosed with hearing is lasix for dogs the same as for humans loss (but otherwise healthy). It found that 13 percent had an injury in a fall within three years, compared to 7.5 percent of the general population their age.

Reasons hearing loss may increase risk of falling 1. Hearing taps your is lasix for dogs the same as for humans brain reserves. If you’re concentrating harder to interpret sound, you may have less mental resource available for balance.

"Gait and balance are things most people take for granted, but they are actually very cognitively demanding," says otologist Frank Lin, MD, PhD, from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. 2. Aging affects both hearing and balance.

Age-related hearing loss may be linked to declines in the vestibular sense, a set of receptors in your inner ear, which comes into play whenever you move your head. It’s also activated by the downward force of gravity, giving you a sense of where you are. Your grounding.

If you’ve ever had an of the inner ear, you’ll recall you were dizzy. However, you don’t need to be dizzy to have vestibular issues. Some evidence suggests the vestibular sense may begin to decline at about the age of 40.

More than a third of all Americans older than 40 are unable to pass a balance test—standing on foam with their eyes closed—that is linked to a higher risk of falling. (To test your balance, check out this test.) Loud low-frequency sounds (think pounding drums) may damage the inner ear, over time affecting our balance (and hearing). To be clear, age-related hearing loss and inner ear problems are not the same thing and don't always occur simultaneously.

€œMany people with vestibular disorders have excellent hearing and not all people with hearing loss will have vestibular weakness,” Lubetzky told me. 3. Sounds help us balance.

If you try to balance on one leg in a yoga class, for example, your teacher will tell you to stare at one spot. Stable sounds may work the same way, Lubetzky explained, as a kind of “auditory anchor.” But you have to hear them. This process may be especially important if you have hearing loss.

For example, when people with hearing loss hear stable background sounds, their posture improves. Balance arises from the contributions of several senses. Vision, the coordination between our head and our eyes, our muscle and joint coordination—and, possibly, what we hear.

4. Hearing loss is linked to mood. People may be less alert when caught up in a fog of misery or anxiety.

Hearing loss increases the risk of depression. Depression is linked to more falls and those falls tend to deepen depression in another classic bad cycle. How to prevent falls Keep moving.

Walking, balance exercises and resistance exercises to strengthen muscles can keep seniors on their feet. You can build strength and improve your balance in as little as two 15-20 minute sessions a week, Finnish researchers report. Staying active and exercising regularlyhelps keep your sense of balance healthy.

Tai-chi classes, an ancient Chinese practice, are popular among older people. An hour of tai chi from one to three times a week can cut the risk of a bad fall by half, according to a review of 10 randomized controlled trials. The National Council on Aging recommends a program called “Tai Chi for arthritis” for older people.

You may feel more comfortable in a tai chi (or any kind of class) if you can easily hear the teacher and converse with other students. Or consider a water aerobics class. If you do fall, strength-training will make you less to break a bone.

Working out with resistance bands or weights or doing resistance exercises makes your bones denser and therefore stronger. Squats, for example, built bone mass in a group of post-menopausal women with deteriorating bones in one study. When did you have your last eye checkup?.

Tint-changing lenses and bifocals are less appropriate for older people and you may need to change prescriptions. Fall proof your home. Have you done a walk-through, making sure that the bottom and top of all stairs are well-lit and the carpeting and railing secure?.

Secure any loose carpeting, especially in hallways. Install grab bars near the toilet and bath or shower. The CDC offers a home assessment checklist.

Consider physical therapy, if you or your older loved one have trouble walking or getting up from a chair. Do hearing aids help prevent falls?.

Ask them and they’ll likely say it’s, “I can hear, but I can’t understand.” If this is what you’re experiencing, you may have hearing can you get lasix over the counter loss.Hearing loss involves not only the ears, but also the brain where sound is translated into meaningful words. Symptoms vary between people. Hearing loss comes in all degrees from mild to profound.

But most people, especially older adults, have mild-to-moderate hearing loss, especially the type that makes it harder can you get lasix over the counter to hear high-pitched sounds. In this case, the chief symptom may be difficulty with word understanding, especially in noisy situations. Hearing vs.

Understanding When can you get lasix over the counter your hearing is tested, the results are plotted on an audiogram. People with high-frequency hearing loss are said to have a “sloping” hearing loss. If you have a sloping hearing loss, it means you are able to hear low-pitched sounds (such as thunder), sometimes even as clearly as someone with normal hearing.

But, high-pitched sounds (such can you get lasix over the counter as children's voices) need to be much louder before you can hear them. While not always the case, high-frequency hearing loss is often the cause of feeling like you can hear but can’t understand. Did you say parrot or ferret?.

In speech, the vowel sounds (A, E, I, O and U) are low in pitch can you get lasix over the counter while consonant sounds like S, F, Th, Sh, V, K, P and others are high in pitch. Being able to hear vowel sounds is helpful and will alert you that speech is present, but it’s the consonant sounds that give speech meaning and help you distinguish one word from another. Without being able to hear subtle differences between consonants, words like “cat” and “hat,” “parrot” and “ferret” and “show” and “throw” can be hard to differentiate.

This is why so many people can you get lasix over the counter with age-related hearing loss or excessive noise exposure have difficulty understanding even when they know sound is present. Trouble hearing with background noise If you feel like you can hear but notunderstand speech, it may be an earlysign of hearing loss. If you have a high-frequency hearing loss, you may notice problems understanding speech even in a relatively quiet environment, but when background noise is present or several people are talking at once, it can become nearly impossible to follow a conversation.

People with hearing loss can you get lasix over the counter may begin to avoid lively social situations or public places they once enjoyed because interacting with others is too difficult. Signs of high-frequency hearing loss When you have a high frequency hearing loss, you may. struggle to follow conversations (hear but can’t understand).

Sturggle to hear people on the phone can you get lasix over the counter. Find it hard to watch TV shows or movies even when you turn the volume up. Mishear female and young children’s voices not enjoy music because it sounds distorted, especially at higher volumes.

Feel like everyone is mumbling more often feel exhausted from listening, known as listening fatigue Family members, friends and work colleagues can get frustrated and feel you aren’t listening to them when they speak can you get lasix over the counter to you. Your spouse may accuse you of having “selective hearing.” You may accuse others of mumbling. Sometimes, you will answer questions inappropriately and miss the punch lines of jokes.

Other times, you may resort to smiling and nodding when someone speaks to give the impression you are listening when in fact, you do not understand what was just said (see this woman's story for how that plays out in real can you get lasix over the counter life). Untreated hearing loss can take a toll on relationships, careers and your daily life. Pass a hearing test but still feel like you can't hear?.

If you've taken a hearing can you get lasix over the counter test and were told your hearing is fine, don't give up trying to get answers just yet. Your ears may be fine—but your auditory nerve or your brain may have problems processing sounds or other sensory input. For example.

Hidden hearing loss Hidden hearing loss is defined as hearing can you get lasix over the counter loss that's not detectable on standard hearing tests, which zero in on problems within the ear. Hidden hearing loss is not a problem with the ears—instead, it originates in the brain. Auditory processing disorders (APD) For some people, hearing but not understanding may signal an auditory processing disorder (APD).

This means the nervous system—not the can you get lasix over the counter ears—struggles to make sense of the sounds coming in from the ears. APD is often diagnosed in children, but it also can be diagnosed in adults. Attention deficit disorder (ADD) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also can make it hard to understand—in the sense that the brain can't quite keep up with all incoming sensory inputs, including and sometimes especially noise.

If you have undiagnosed and untreated ADD, you may pass a can you get lasix over the counter hearing test just fine, yet feel like you can't understand people, or struggle to follow conversations. In either case, a hearing aid may help a person with APD or ADD focus on the conversation they want to hear most, allowing them to amplify the voice of their preferred speaker (such as a professor). It's worth noting that some people may have ADD or autism and an auditory processing disorder.

Don't accept difficult hearing If your hearing test reveals can you get lasix over the counter hearing loss, hearing aids can amplify the high pitches you’ve been missing without amplifying low-pitched sounds. Once you begin wearing hearing aids, you will notice improvement with understanding speech and you may even notice you’re hearing sounds that have long been forgotten. For instance, some new hearing aid wearers are pleasantly surprised to hear the soft chirping of songbirds for the first time in years.

You will once again be able to hear that beeping sound your microwave makes, your car’s turn can you get lasix over the counter signal and your phone ringing. If you can hear, but can’t understand, you’re not alone. This is what hearing care professionals hear almost every day from their patients, and they are highly skilled at getting to the root of the problem, listening to your concerns and finding a solution that meets your needs.

Don’t give can you get lasix over the counter up on enjoying conversations at work, home and play. Find a hearing center near you with our directory, and make the call today.A growing body of research suggests that hearing loss contributes to falls. For older people, falls are a big fear.

As we can you get lasix over the counter age, our hearing and balance naturally decline. More than one in four Americans age 65 or older falls every year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports. Even if you’re not hurt, a tumble is frightening.

People tend to retreat to their chairs, which sets can you get lasix over the counter off a bad cycle. You move less, you become weaker, and are more likely to fall again. Here’s a simple test of your risk.

Stand on one can you get lasix over the counter leg. In a small study of women in their 70s, the chance of a hip fracture dropped by 5 percent for every second they could stand on one leg with their eyes open. Hearing and balance.

How they're connected How does hearing fit can you get lasix over the counter in?. What you hear (and don’t hear) directly affects your balance, according to a research overview led by Anat Lubetzky, PhD, assistant professor in the Physical Therapy Department at New York University, with a team at New York Eye and Ear Infirmary. This is especially important if your balance isn’t the best.

€œMost of us in the field believe that people with poor balance benefit a lot from auditory cues,” Timothy Hullar, MD, a professor of otolaryngology at Oregon Health and Science University, told me. Hearing loss increases the risk of falls I know this from experience can you get lasix over the counter. I have hearing loss, and I’ve fallen twice on hikes.

I have a bit of reputation with my hiking group. A few years ago, I tripped on can you get lasix over the counter a small stone—and fell over what looked like a cliff. Once I landed, I recall a flood of relief.

As I looked up at the horrified faces of my hiking companions, I saw a large boulder with a sharp edge coming my way. I had can you get lasix over the counter dislodged it. It was worse for them than for me.

I recall thinking, “So that was my life!. Maybe there is a heaven.” The rock landed on can you get lasix over the counter my neck and because it wasn’t my time to die, it only left a scratch. Even mild hearing loss can affect fall risk My hearing loss is mild—but that counts.

A 25-decibel hearing loss—equivalent to going from normal to mild hearing loss—triples your chance of falling according to a study of people aged 40 to 69. That’s when hearing loss often first develops can you get lasix over the counter and you’re less likely to guard against falls. Another study, from a team at the University of Michigan, analyzed data on nearly 115,000 seniors newly diagnosed with hearing loss (but otherwise healthy).

It found that 13 percent had an injury in a fall within three years, compared to 7.5 percent of the general population their age. Reasons hearing loss can you get lasix over the counter may increase risk of falling 1. Hearing taps your brain reserves.

If you’re concentrating harder to interpret sound, you may have less mental resource available for balance. "Gait and balance are can you get lasix over the counter things most people take for granted, but they are actually very cognitively demanding," says otologist Frank Lin, MD, PhD, from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. 2.

Aging affects both hearing and balance. Age-related hearing loss may be linked to declines in the vestibular sense, a set of receptors in your inner can you get lasix over the counter ear, which comes into play whenever you move your head. It’s also activated by the downward force of gravity, giving you a sense of where you are.

Your grounding. If you’ve can you get lasix over the counter ever had an of the inner ear, you’ll recall you were dizzy. However, you don’t need to be dizzy to have vestibular issues.

Some evidence suggests the vestibular sense may begin to decline at about the age of 40. More than a third of can you get lasix over the counter all Americans older than 40 are unable to pass a balance test—standing on foam with their eyes closed—that is linked to a higher risk of falling. (To test your balance, check out this test.) Loud low-frequency sounds (think pounding drums) may damage the inner ear, over time affecting our balance (and hearing).

To be clear, age-related hearing loss and inner ear problems are not the same thing and don't always occur simultaneously. €œMany people with can you get lasix over the counter vestibular disorders have excellent hearing and not all people with hearing loss will have vestibular weakness,” Lubetzky told me. 3.

Sounds help us balance. If you try to balance on one can you get lasix over the counter leg in a yoga class, for example, your teacher will tell you to stare at one spot. Stable sounds may work the same way, Lubetzky explained, as a kind of “auditory anchor.” But you have to hear them.

This process may be especially important if you have hearing loss. For example, can you get lasix over the counter when people with hearing loss hear stable background sounds, their posture improves. Balance arises from the contributions of several senses.

Vision, the coordination between our head and our eyes, our muscle and joint coordination—and, possibly, what we hear. 4. Hearing loss is linked to mood.

People may be less alert when caught up in a fog of misery or anxiety. Hearing loss increases the risk of depression. Depression is linked to more falls and those falls tend to deepen depression in another classic bad cycle.

How to prevent falls Keep moving. Walking, balance exercises and resistance exercises to strengthen muscles can keep seniors on their feet. You can build strength and improve your balance in as little as two 15-20 minute sessions a week, Finnish researchers report.

Staying active and exercising regularlyhelps keep your sense of balance healthy. Tai-chi classes, an ancient Chinese practice, are popular among older people. An hour of tai chi from one to three times a week can cut the risk of a bad fall by half, according to a review of 10 randomized controlled trials.

The National Council on Aging recommends a program called “Tai Chi for arthritis” for older people. You may feel more comfortable in a tai chi (or any kind of class) if you can easily hear the teacher and converse with other students. Or consider a water aerobics class.

If you do fall, strength-training will make you less to break a bone. Working out with resistance bands or weights or doing resistance exercises makes your bones denser and therefore stronger. Squats, for example, built bone mass in a group of post-menopausal women with deteriorating bones in one study.

When did you have your last eye checkup?. Tint-changing lenses and bifocals are less appropriate for older people and you may need to change prescriptions. Fall proof your home.

Have you done a walk-through, making sure that the bottom and top of all stairs are well-lit and the carpeting and railing secure?. Secure any loose carpeting, especially in hallways. Install grab bars near the toilet and bath or shower.

The CDC offers a home assessment checklist. Consider physical therapy, if you or your older loved one have trouble walking or getting up from a chair.

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Concord Hospital’s $341 million redevelopment is on track for furosemide generic for lasix completion, with the eight-storey Clinical Services Building set to transform healthcare in the inner west.Health Minister Brad Hazzard and Member for Drummoyne John Sidoti visited the site for a traditional topping out ceremony to where can i buy lasix over the counter mark the building reaching its highest point. Mr Hazzard said the Clinical Services Building will have more than 200 inpatient beds, with just over 550 beds across the campus, an increase of more than 100 from previously. €œThe NSW Government’s furosemide generic for lasix $341 million commitment to Concord Hospital has created more than 700 construction jobs to build this modern, state-of-the-art facility,” Mr Hazzard said. €œNot only does it house the nation’s first dedicated veterans’ health service, a comprehensive cancer centre and an aged care centre, over two-thirds of the new inpatient beds in the new Clinical Services Building are in single rooms with daybeds for carers.” Mr Sidoti said the National Centre for Veterans’ Healthcare has been successfully operating as a pilot service since August last year.

To date 128 people have been referred to the service and 54 have completed their care. €œThis Centre is furosemide generic for lasix critical to our veteran community and continues Concord Hospital’s proud 80-year history of supporting veterans and their families,” Mr Sidoti said. Concord Hospital’s new Clinical Services Building will include. the Rusty Priest Centre for Rehabilitation and Aged CareNational Centre for Veterans’ Healthcare a comprehensive Cancer Care Centre with 28 beds and 48 chemotherapy, infusion and haematology chairsa new concourse linking the new building to the existing hospital, providing direct access to furosemide generic for lasix operating theatres, radiology and emergency care.Construction of a new $32.4 million multistorey car park will begin following the completion of the Clinical Services Building expected in late 2021.

The NSW Government also spent $1.3 million in 2019 refurbishing two theatres at Concord Hospital that are now fully digitally integrated. €‹â€‹.

Concord Hospital’s $341 million redevelopment is on track for completion, with the eight-storey Clinical Services Building set to transform healthcare in the inner west.Health Minister Brad Hazzard and Member for Drummoyne John Sidoti visited the site for a traditional topping out ceremony to mark the building can you get lasix over the counter reaching its highest point. Mr Hazzard said the Clinical Services Building will have more than 200 inpatient beds, with just over 550 beds across the campus, an increase of more than 100 from previously. €œThe NSW Government’s $341 million commitment to Concord Hospital has created more than 700 construction jobs to can you get lasix over the counter build this modern, state-of-the-art facility,” Mr Hazzard said. €œNot only does it house the nation’s first dedicated veterans’ health service, a comprehensive cancer centre and an aged care centre, over two-thirds of the new inpatient beds in the new Clinical Services Building are in single rooms with daybeds for carers.” Mr Sidoti said the National Centre for Veterans’ Healthcare has been successfully operating as a pilot service since August last year.

To date 128 people have been referred to the service and 54 have completed their care. €œThis Centre is critical to our veteran community and continues Concord Hospital’s proud 80-year history of supporting veterans and their families,” Mr Sidoti said can you get lasix over the counter. Concord Hospital’s new Clinical Services Building will include. the Rusty Priest Centre for Rehabilitation and Aged CareNational Centre for Veterans’ Healthcare a comprehensive Cancer Care Centre with 28 beds and 48 chemotherapy, infusion and haematology chairsa new concourse linking the new building to the existing hospital, providing direct access to operating theatres, radiology and emergency care.Construction of a new $32.4 million multistorey car park will begin following the completion of the Clinical Services Building expected in late 2021.

The NSW Government also spent $1.3 million in 2019 refurbishing two theatres at Concord Hospital that are now fully digitally integrated. €‹â€‹.

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Like many Americans, I remember every iv lasix administration detail of Sept click for more info. 11, 2001, like it was yesterday.I was a congressional reporter in Washington, D.C., for Dow Jones Newswires and was getting ready that Tuesday morning to cover a hearing when I noticed a shot of the twin towers on CNBC instead of the usual market news. I'd been in New York City the week before and just missed meeting one of my college roommates, Elsa Gomez, for lunch iv lasix administration in the south tower, where she worked on the 72nd floor as a portfolio manager for Morgan Stanley.I had just turned off my hair dryer and turned up the volume to hear what the TV reporters were saying when the second plane crashed into the south tower, at 9:03 a.m. My frantic calls to Elsa's cell phone rolled to voice mail, and then my own phone rang.My bureau chief, John Connor, yelled, "Do you see the news?.

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Like many my sources Americans, can you get lasix over the counter I remember every detail of Sept. 11, 2001, like it was yesterday.I was a congressional reporter in Washington, D.C., for Dow Jones Newswires and was getting ready that Tuesday morning to cover a hearing when I noticed a shot of the twin towers on CNBC instead of the usual market news. I'd been in New York City the week before and just missed meeting one of my college roommates, Elsa Gomez, for lunch in the south tower, where she worked on the 72nd floor as a portfolio manager can you get lasix over the counter for Morgan Stanley.I had just turned off my hair dryer and turned up the volume to hear what the TV reporters were saying when the second plane crashed into the south tower, at 9:03 a.m. My frantic calls to Elsa's cell phone rolled to voice mail, and then my own phone rang.My bureau chief, John Connor, yelled, "Do you see the news?. ""Yes, I'm watching it now can you get lasix over the counter.

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The difficulty in communicating on 9/11 would later prompt Dow Jones to buy BlackBerrys for everyone, but few of us had them at the time, can you get lasix over the counter and I wasn't one of them. If I happened to get an offhand quote from a senator or regulator that broke news, I called the main news desk in Jersey City, New Jersey, and dictated my story to the copy desk, which sent headlines and the finished stories to the markets.My heart was racing. I drove to the Capitol and can you get lasix over the counter ran into the Senate side with my laptop, cellphone, reporter's pad and pens. I got lucky and ran into John Glenn, the former astronaut and retired Democratic senator from Ohio. Glenn said he was told the crashes were intentional, an attack of some kind, and that he was waiting to hear about a security briefing on can you get lasix over the counter it.As we were talking, at 9:37 a.m., a third plane crashed, this time into the Pentagon.

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I tried to call in and report what Glenn had told me but couldn't get can you get lasix over the counter a signal. That's when we saw the smoke billowing out from the Pentagon and heard what we thought were bombs going off across D.C.We were all terrified, except maybe David Rogers, a veteran congressional reporter for The Wall Street Journal, who liked to call me "Kid." I watched him coolly stroll beside some staffers while I ran and ducked behind a tree. Even Robert Byrd, the former Democratic senator from West Virginia, was ducking behind a tree about 20 feet away from can you get lasix over the counter me. Byrd was president pro tempore of the U.S. Senate at the time, can you get lasix over the counter placing him third in line for the presidency should anything happen to the president, vice president and House speaker.My fear turned to focus.

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" I asked."You don't want to know," he said."I actually do. This is my job.""Off the record, a plane is heading for the can you get lasix over the counter Capitol building," he said.Within minutes, the Capitol Police started to back everyone away from the Capitol grounds.I camped out at Bagels and Baguettes just outside the Capitol building, inhaled some coffee and a sesame seed bagel with cream cheese and tomato and wrote my story. I paid them $20 to use their landline to call my editor and transmit the article via modem.My bureau chief said cell phone carriers had jammed their signals so the attackers couldn't communicate. He offered to call my parents to let them know I was can you get lasix over the counter okay. He told me that my colleague who covered Congress with me wasn't able to get to Capitol Hill, so I was flying solo.The Capitol Police headquarters, just two blocks away, became a makeshift briefing room for congressional leaders.

The press corps camped can you get lasix over the counter outside. That's when I finally noticed how beautiful the weather was. The sky can you get lasix over the counter was a crisp medium blue. There wasn't a single cloud. It was in the low- to can you get lasix over the counter mid-70s and a slight breeze washed over the city.

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I didn't even know how to spell his name.Congressional leaders moved the last briefing can you get lasix over the counter of the night to the Capitol grounds — with a nice shot of the building in the back — for a live press conference on national TV some time after midnight. I don't remember the exact time. I was wide can you get lasix over the counter awake, but exhausted. I got home around 2:45 a.m. My roommates can you get lasix over the counter were still up.

We watched CNN replay the collapse of the towers over and over again. I called my editors in Jersey City to see what I can you get lasix over the counter missed. They told me to get some rest. I got about two hours of restless sleep and was back on the Hill around can you get lasix over the counter 7 a.m.The next few months were some of the most difficult of my career. It would be two nerve-wracking days before any of us could reach our old college roommate.

Elsa had left her cell phone can you get lasix over the counter at her desk while narrowly escaping the initial plane crash and then the collapse of the towers. But she was safe, unlike many of her colleagues and more than 3,000 other people who died in the attacks.I was too busy, too focused, had too much adrenaline to feel anything those first few days — until Saturday night when I had my first downtime of the week. My roommate Katrina, who was a Senate aide, can you get lasix over the counter and I split a bottle of wine and ugly-cried together over heart-wrenching interviews of Todd Beamer's wife and the families of other victims.Covering 9/11 was a watershed moment in my career.It gave me the stamina I needed to later cover the financial crisis as a Washington-based housing and markets reporter and now as CNBC's Health and Science editor, overseeing much of our hypertension medications lasix coverage. It taught me to remain calm in the midst of crisis, helped me understand the complexities of covering catastrophic events and showed me the importance of bringing fast and accurate news to the public.A lot of bad or half-accurate information comes out fast at the beginning of any catastrophic news event. You have can you get lasix over the counter to be discerning.

Who do you listen to?. Are they qualified, do they have firsthand knowledge, do they have an agenda? can you get lasix over the counter. Are they merely repeating what they've heard from people you've already interviewed?. Rumors can inadvertently be started or fueled by can you get lasix over the counter reporters calling around asking questions. Journalism is a first draft of history, but we are all striving to get the facts straight at the outset.I don't take personal offense to people on social media who don't understand how news organizations work and blindly attack all media.

There are a few news personalities and politically skewed outlets that don't seem to care about facts, and they can you get lasix over the counter have greatly damaged the reputation of objective journalism over the last decade. But you should know that the vast majority of us are trying to get it right. Covering 9/11, the financial crisis and now the lasix is public service journalism at its most basic level, and we all take that responsibility very seriously.As I edit stories this week about the 20th anniversary can you get lasix over the counter of 9/11, I'm still mourning with the rest of America. While coordinating coverage of the hypertension medications lasix, I'm also mourning the lives lost to this more recent attack out of nowhere. But it was then and still is an honor and privilege to inform the public..

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Breathe Kamagra online canada does lasix have sulfa in it. Breathe. I repeated these words to myself like a mantra. At 18,400 feet, my body was craving oxygen, and I had to concentrate on pulling does lasix have sulfa in it enough air into my lungs.

I was on the summit of Cerro Toco, a stratovolcano overlooking Chile’s Chajnantor Plateau, now home to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, one of the world’s premier radio telescopes. Between the thin atmosphere and the barren red terrain of the mountain, it felt like I was on Mars. My colleagues does lasix have sulfa in it and I were testing the atmospheric conditions on Cerro Toco. If they were good enough, they might justify taking on the technical challenges of building an observatory at such a remote, high-altitude site.

Earth’s atmosphere is a problem for astronomers, and clouds frustrate many an observer. Atmospheric turbulence smears does lasix have sulfa in it starlight, making stars appear to dance and flicker when close to the horizon. Molecules such as water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere absorb incoming starlight, particularly infrared light. With more than half of Earth’s air below the summit of Cerro Toco (a point repeatedly raised by my burning lungs), we hoped that new and exciting insights could come from a dedicated infrared telescope there.

The sense of adventure that had led me to this summit had also sparked my fascination does lasix have sulfa in it with infrared astronomy, where scientists peer at the cosmos in light too red for the human eye to see. Infrared light tends to come from the dimmest and most distant objects observable. One class of objects best seen in the infrared is brown dwarfs. When I does lasix have sulfa in it was in graduate school in the early 2000s, these bodies had only recently been discovered, and they presented many tempting mysteries.

I came to be captivated by these uncanny orbs, which, in terms of their classification, occupy a boundary zone between stars and planets. I wondered where and how they formed and what they were like. I learned through my research that in addition to being does lasix have sulfa in it interesting in their own right, brown dwarfs serve as an important bridge to our understanding of both planets and stars, with temperatures and masses intermediate between the two. Now I and other brown dwarf astronomers are enjoying a sweet spot for research—there are still many brown dwarfs waiting to be discovered, and we can build on the wealth of previous research to uncover new details of physical processes at work on these objects.

We finally have the technological tools to study the atmospheres of brown dwarfs, for example, as well as their wind and rotation speeds, and to try to determine whether they might even host planets of their own. In-Between Objects Most stars are powered by the fusion of hydrogen into does lasix have sulfa in it helium, a wonderfully stable process that keeps stars burning at the same temperature and brightness for billions of years. But if a would-be star never reaches high-enough temperatures or pressures to sustain hydrogen fusion, it is a brown dwarf, with a maximum mass of 8 percent of our sun’s, or about 80 times the mass of Jupiter. Recent studies indicate that brown dwarfs are nearly as common as stars, and they are everywhere.

Brown dwarfs have been does lasix have sulfa in it found in stellar nurseries alongside young protostars. They have been found in binary systems paired with white dwarfs, having survived potential engulfment by the white dwarf’s previous red giant form. (Our sun, a yellow dwarf star, will one day turn into a bloated red giant, and after it dies, it will become a white dwarf.) Some of the closest stellar systems to our sun are brown dwarfs—the third and fourth nearest extrasolar systems, at 6.5 and 7.3 light-years, respectively (the closest are Alpha Centauri and Barnard’s star). And yet, despite their ubiquity, most people have never heard of brown dwarfs does lasix have sulfa in it.

Although they lack hydrogen fusion, brown dwarfs do emit light—thermal radiation from the heat within them. They start out relatively hot (around 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit), and over the subsequent billions of years, they cool and dim. Brown dwarfs does lasix have sulfa in it never die. They spend eternity cooling off and fading away.

The coldest known brown dwarf checks in at a temperature below the freezing point of water. Because they are so cool, most of the light does lasix have sulfa in it they emit is at infrared wavelengths. They are far too faint for the unaided human eye to see in our night sky, but if we could look at them up close, they would probably have a dull orange-red or magenta hue. In the more than two decades since astronomers began studying brown dwarfs, we have formed a fairly clear picture of their basic characteristics.

Like our does lasix have sulfa in it sun, brown dwarfs are composed almost entirely of hydrogen. The temperatures in their upper atmospheres are cool enough, however, that a variety of molecules can form. Signatures of water vapor are seen in nearly all brown dwarfs. As they cool further, their atmospheric chemistry changes, and different molecules and clouds does lasix have sulfa in it become predominant.

The evolution of a brown dwarf’s atmosphere depends on its mass and age. Imagine a brown dwarf with a mass 40 times that of Jupiter, for instance. For the first 100 million years, it will have an atmospheric composition similar to that of a red dwarf star, with titanium oxide and carbon monoxide present in the does lasix have sulfa in it mix. Between 100 million and 500 million years, the atmosphere will cool, and dusty clouds made of minerals such as enstatite and quartz will form.

Roughly a billion years after that, the clouds will break up and sink, and methane will become the dominant molecular species in the upper atmosphere. The coolest known brown dwarf shows evidence of does lasix have sulfa in it water-ice clouds, as well as water vapor and methane. We expect its atmosphere to contain significant amounts of ammonia, similar to what we see on Jupiter. Beyond these properties, however, there are many things about brown dwarfs that we do not yet know.

The mysterious does lasix have sulfa in it nature of these objects has inspired some far-fetched ideas. Brown dwarfs were once considered to be a possible reservoir of dark matter, although this idea was quickly abandoned when it became clear that brown dwarfs emit light (that is, they are not dark) and that their contribution to the total mass of our galaxy is small. More recently, scientists proposed that life could form in the cool upper regions of brown dwarfs’ atmospheres—an idea that brown dwarf experts quickly squashed because the dynamics are such that any life-form would cycle into deeper layers of the atmosphere that are hot and inhospitable. And then there was the hoax of the Nibiru cataclysm, a prophesy put forward in 1995 that predicted an imminent, disastrous does lasix have sulfa in it encounter between Earth and a brown dwarf.

Astronomers would be very excited to see a brown dwarf up close, but there is no scientific evidence to support this doomsday scenario, and a brown dwarf would be visible for hundreds or thousands of years prior to any close encounter. The First Brown Dwarfs Scientists predicted brown dwarfs in the 1960s based on what they knew about how stars and planets form. It seemed that this does lasix have sulfa in it intermediate category should exist, but astronomers were not finding any such objects in the sky. It turned out that brown dwarfs are simply very, very faint, and most of the light they emit is infrared.

And infrared technology was still in its infancy—just not up to the task. Then came the year 1995, a does lasix have sulfa in it big one for astronomy. Astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz found 51 Pegasi b, the first exoplanet known to be orbiting a regular star. Perhaps more important, at least to this highly biased author, the first brown dwarfs were discovered.

Teide 1 does lasix have sulfa in it was identified in the famous Pleiades star cluster. Astronomers Rafael Rebolo López, María Rosa Zapatero-Osorio and Eduardo L. Martín first spotted it in optical images from the 0.80-meter telescope at the Teide Observatory in the Canary Islands. The object does lasix have sulfa in it was young, still glowing slightly from its formation.

The team observed the signatures of several molecules in its atmosphere, including lithium. Stars usually burn up lithium as soon as they form, so this amazing detection proved that nuclear fusion was not occurring. They published their finding in does lasix have sulfa in it September 1995. Credit.

Illustration by Ron Miller (objects and atmospheres) and Jen Christiansen (H-R diagram) Two months later astronomers announced the discovery of a second brown dwarf, Gliese 229B, a companion to another star. A group of astronomers at the California Institute of Technology and Johns Hopkins University first saw the object in an infrared image from the Palomar Observatory does lasix have sulfa in it. They immediately knew that it was strange. It had unusual colors and displayed the signature of methane in its atmosphere.

Conditions must be very cold for does lasix have sulfa in it methane to be present because the highly reactive molecule usually turns into carbon monoxide at higher temperatures. Later observations revealed that the brown dwarf is about the same width as Jupiter, with a diameter of nearly 129,000 kilometers, but much denser, with 70 times as much mass. By the time I started graduate school in 2000, we knew of more brown dwarfs, though not that many. I was focused on building infrared instruments, and I needed a subject for my does lasix have sulfa in it research topic.

My Ph.D. Adviser studied star formation, so I decided to search for brown dwarfs in star-forming regions. I ended up discovering a good number of brown dwarfs in my thesis work, does lasix have sulfa in it including some that were the first known to have masses putting them near the range of planets. At the time we had no idea how these things formed, and we did not know whether there was a lower-mass threshold, but we started finding smaller and smaller objects.

All in all, my thesis work published fewer than 20 new brown dwarf discoveries, but they made a significant contribution to the total number known. Since then, new does lasix have sulfa in it instruments have found many, many more. The main contributors were the 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), an infrared survey conducted in the early 2000s, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a space telescope launched in 2009. The current tally of brown dwarfs is about 3,000.

There are many more to be found, though—estimates suggest that the Milky Way contains between 25 billion and 100 does lasix have sulfa in it billion brown dwarfs. Formation Scenarios As the lowest-mass outcome of the star-formation process, brown dwarfs offer astronomers a unique chance to deepen our understanding of the basic steps involved in the birth of stars and planets. Stars form in complexes of gas (mostly molecular hydrogen) and dust known as molecular clouds. If a molecular cloud contains enough mass, gravity can overcome the gas pressure supporting the cloud and cause does lasix have sulfa in it it to collapse into a star.

During the collapse, any small amount of rotation in the cloud becomes amplified, much like how ice skaters spin faster when they pull their arms in. This rotation of the cloud material leads to the formation of a circumstellar disk of matter surrounding the nascent star, which then becomes a crucible for planet formation. When brown dwarfs were first discovered, astronomers assumed they might form in a process similar to that for stars, but they were perplexed as to how the gravity from such a small mass was does lasix have sulfa in it able to overcome gas pressure and initiate a collapse. In writing this article, I looked back over some grant and telescope proposals from early in my career, most of which were aimed at better understanding the formation mechanism of brown dwarfs.

At the time there were several competing ideas. Some theories involved disrupting the formation of a star before it had reached its final mass does lasix have sulfa in it. Perhaps some process physically removed the brown dwarf or burned off its natal environment, leaving behind a miniature star?. Other hypotheses invoked a scaled-down version of star formation or a scaled-up version of planet formation.

This is does lasix have sulfa in it a lovely example of using a variety of possible theories to make distinct, testable predictions. As we discovered the ubiquity of circumstellar disks around brown dwarfs, determined the distribution of stellar and brown dwarf masses in a variety of environments, and mapped the orbits of brown dwarfs in binary pairs, it became clear that most brown dwarfs seem to form like scaled-down stars—but from a smaller reservoir of gas. And the fact that brown dwarfs form circumstellar disks raises the tantalizing possibility that they host planets. Although we have never seen any for sure, it is very likely that does lasix have sulfa in it planets grow in these disks just as they do around stars.

Scientists hope the coming years will finally see the confirmed discovery of worlds orbiting brown dwarfs. Recently researchers discovered isolated brown dwarfs with masses similar to those of giant planets (less than 13 times the mass of Jupiter), which again raised the question of how they might have formed. Could some of these planetary-mass brown dwarfs have arisen in the circumstellar disks of more massive stars—in other words, formed just does lasix have sulfa in it as planets do?. To test the mechanism for the formation of planetlike masses, my colleagues and I proposed a survey with the Hubble Space Telescope.

Because Hubble is in orbit, it avoids the smearing and absorption of light by Earth’s atmosphere, which makes it ideal for imaging binary pairs of brown dwarfs. Through this survey, in 2020 we discovered a unique system of brown does lasix have sulfa in it dwarfs that strongly supports a starlike-formation mechanism for planetlike masses. The system, Oph 98 AB, is very young in cosmic terms (three million years old), and its two components weigh in at 15 and eight times the mass of Jupiter. These extremely low-mass objects are separated by 200 times the distance between Earth and the sun.

Because Oph 98 A and B are so light and so widely separated, does lasix have sulfa in it the system has the lowest gravitational binding energy of any known binary pair. The weak binding energy means that these bodies must have formed in their current orientation, rather than originating elsewhere and later becoming a pair, which points to a starlike-formation mechanism. And the young age of the system (yes, we consider three million years young!. ) means that planetary-mass objects apparently do not take any longer does lasix have sulfa in it to form than stars.

New Insights Brown dwarf science has now reached a stage where we are able to make more precise measurements and ask more detailed questions than ever before about these still mysterious objects. Among the most interesting recent discoveries are the coldest brown dwarfs, known as Y dwarfs. These objects have temperatures ranging from 350 degrees does lasix have sulfa in it F down to –10 degrees F. I love to joke when working on Y dwarfs that I am studying the coolest systems in the galaxy!.

Though not quite as cold as Jupiter (–234 degrees F), these Y dwarfs have enabled us to make the first meaningful comparison between brown dwarfs and the atmospheres of the giant planets in our solar system. Y dwarfs are does lasix have sulfa in it difficult to observe because they are both cool and very dim. The light they do emit is predominantly in the infrared range, at wavelengths of three to five microns, where Earth’s atmosphere makes observations difficult. Regardless, my colleagues and I have published spectra of several Y dwarfs and used theoretical models to infer the presence of water-ice clouds, as well as a significant amount of vertical mixing in the atmosphere.

In this same wavelength range, Jupiter does lasix have sulfa in it emits its own light (rather than just reflecting the light of our sun) and shows significant vertical mixing as well. Our hope is that by studying Y dwarfs, we will be able to disentangle properties of Jupiter that come from its planetary nature—in other words, the fact that it formed in the circumstellar disk of our sun and is constantly illuminated by sunlight—and properties that may be ubiquitous among cool gaseous objects, be they planets, exoplanets or brown dwarfs. Thus far our studies are showing that highly dynamic atmospheres tend to be the norm. These insights does lasix have sulfa in it about brown dwarf atmospheres have led to a new subfield.

Exometeorology. Although brown dwarfs are too far away for us to visually examine their atmospheric features, we can see their imprint through changes in brightness. As a cloud or other feature rotates in does lasix have sulfa in it and out of view, it changes the light coming from the brown dwarf. Astronomers have analyzed the brightness variations of brown dwarfs over many rotations and have created maps of their spots and bands, which look remarkably like the familiar stripes and storms on the giant planets in our own solar system.

Some brown dwarfs have been found to change in brightness by up to 25 percent over one rotation. The results of these studies are leading us to better understand atmospheric processes more generally—we have found that brown dwarfs with temperatures at which clouds break up show large does lasix have sulfa in it variations in brightness and that young objects tend to show greater variability in brightness. Scientists have also discovered other similarities between brown dwarfs and gas giants. Both, for example, tend to have strong magnetic fields and aurorae, as revealed by radio observations of the signatures of charged particles spiraling in their magnetic fields.

The measured magnetic field strengths for brown dwarfs are 1,000 times stronger than Jupiter’s does lasix have sulfa in it magnetic field and 10,000 times stronger than Earth’s. I like to imagine what the night sky might look like from one of these brown dwarfs—given the beauty of Earth’s aurora borealis, it would likely be a spectacular sight. Recently a student’s question prompted another project to examine how the atmospheres on brown dwarfs compare with those on planets. When I teach courses in introductory astronomy, we cover the planets of the solar system (and of course, I sprinkle in does lasix have sulfa in it a lot of information about brown dwarfs as well).

A tidbit I present is that the length of a Jovian day depends on how you measure it. If you clock the motion of visible features in Jupiter’s equatorial region, you measure a rotation period that is five minutes shorter than the rotation period measured in the radio signal, which probes its interior rotation. A student asked me why this difference in rotation period occurs, and I replied that it was because Jupiter’s does lasix have sulfa in it equatorial features are pushed along by strong zonal winds. The winds on Earth are driven by the redistribution of solar energy, but we are not sure to what degree this applies to Jupiter’s winds.

After the lecture, I started thinking about this further. Astronomers have measured radio emission in brown dwarfs, which occurs via the same does lasix have sulfa in it mechanism as Jupiter’s radio emission, so we can measure an interior rotation period. And we can use our method of monitoring brightness changes to measure the atmosphere’s rotation period. Thus, I hatched an idea to measure the wind speed on a brown dwarf for the first time.

The best candidate we had to try out the technique was a methane brown dwarf with does lasix have sulfa in it confirmed radio emission. To determine the wind speed, we would need to measure both periods to a precision of less than 30 seconds. My colleagues and I submitted a proposal to use the Spitzer Space Telescope to measure the brown dwarf’s brightness variations and applied to use the Karl G. Jansky Very does lasix have sulfa in it Large Array in New Mexico to measure a more precise radio period.

It still feels like a small miracle that our measurements revealed a period difference of just more than a minute, which equates to a wind speed of 2,300 kilometers per hour. We published our findings last year in the journal Science. This high wind speed on an isolated brown dwarf means that atmospheric winds are not always driven by the does lasix have sulfa in it redistribution of solar energy, leaving open the question of whether Jupiter’s winds are driven by the sun. Astronomers continue to search for more brown dwarfs.

Some surveys focus on identifying large samples of brown dwarfs via deep imaging surveys of the whole sky such as 2MASS, WISE, and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). Citizen scientists have also become involved in the search through projects such as Backyard Worlds, which allows anyone to examine WISE data for does lasix have sulfa in it signs of brown dwarfs and other moving objects. We expect that upcoming large surveys with the Vera C. Rubin Observatory (due to begin observing early next year) and the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (launching in 2025) will work to further complete our census of brown dwarfs.

Sadly, we could not get funding for the telescope on Cerro Toco, and it was never does lasix have sulfa in it built. But once the James Webb Space Telescope is launched later this year, astronomers will have an unprecedented look at brown dwarfs in the infrared, without interference from Earth’s atmosphere. The first cycle of observations planned includes programs to study the atmospheric chemistry of Y dwarfs and the cloud composition of dusty brown dwarfs and even a search for planetary systems around brown dwarfs. Exciting times are certainly ahead for those of us who study some of the cosmos’s most overlooked objects.California resident Mark Brown knows too well the danger that climate does lasix have sulfa in it change poses to the West.

A former fire team chief, Brown in 2018 responded to the Camp Fire blaze, California's deadliest wildfire. At least 85 people were killed in the multibillion-dollar disaster, including four victims who died in their cars trying to escape and a fifth person who perished in a desperate run for safety. Brown's now working to does lasix have sulfa in it ensure that horror doesn't repeat itself. As an executive officer with the Marin Wildfire Prevention Authority, Brown is helping to reduce the risk of wildfire and plan for survival if one erupts.

Of note are agency efforts to develop evacuation maps and remove flammable vegetation alongside key routes — all to prevent residents from dying as they try and get away. "We need to make our evacuation routes survivable in a traffic jam, so that even if [people] are caught in a traffic jam, they can stay in their car and they can does lasix have sulfa in it survive in their car," said Brown, 52, retired deputy chief of the Marin County Fire Department. That's safer, he said, "than having to get out of the car and flee, and then get caught, and have no protection at all." It's part of a shift in the Golden State, where deadly and destructive fires have hit repeatedly over the last decade. Cities, counties and individuals are planning both to prevent fires, and to make sure people survive when blazes start.

Because with climate change, fires burn does lasix have sulfa in it hotter and faster. Fleeing for safety increasingly is the only choice. "People are realizing that the wildfires of today, the rate they're burning, the damage they're doing, the severity of them is not the type of wildfires that we saw 10-20-30 years ago," said Daniel Berlant, assistant deputy director at the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, or Cal Fire. "People really are understanding that their life is on the line does lasix have sulfa in it.

They can't wait it out, or just use their garden hose." The emphasis on evacuations may have saved lives this summer. California is now battling the second-largest wildfire in state history — the Dixie Fire — yet so far there are no known fatalities. That's in spite of the fact Dixie has burned more than 500,000 acres, destroyed a historic downtown and remains does lasix have sulfa in it mostly out of control in a rural area about 90 miles northeast of Chico, Calif. Officials credited planning that started years earlier, a community meeting on fire preparedness in May and people's willingness to leave when evacuations started.

€œMost people, particularly in this part of the state of California ... The remote areas, timbered areas, are aware of what happened in the Camp Fire and also the [2020] North Complex [Fire], and many other areas in the last few years," said Carson Wingfield, incident commander at the Dixie Fire's Emergency Operations Center, "So when we come through and we're asking them to go does lasix have sulfa in it ... They'll go, usually." State and local emergency officials said they hope a transformation is underway, as California confronts heightened wildfire risk. Cal Fire and the California Governor's Office of Emergency Services (Cal OES) are pressing local authorities to plan more aggressively for extreme fires.

The Federal Emergency Management Agency over the last five fiscal years has given roughly $62 million in hazard planning and prevention does lasix have sulfa in it assistance money, which Cal OES has passed through as grants. To be sure, prevention remains a top priority, and the state has spent billions of dollars in that area. But there's also a growing acceptance that some fires amplified by climate change are too ferocious to risk not evacuating. "These are does lasix have sulfa in it fires that are burning at record speeds, with flame length sometimes hundreds of feet high, that are like a freight train," Berlant said.

"Even our own firefighters, with the best equipment, the best training and experience on their side, we're challenged to fight and to stop these fires against the weather conditions we're experiencing. "We have seen a lot more people, I think, evacuated areas that maybe 10 years ago would have been a lot harder to get them to leave their homes," he added. Deadly Camp Fire motivates action While state and local authorities for decades have done emergency planning, the 2018 Camp Fire, in does lasix have sulfa in it the Sierra Nevada foothills, created somewhat of a dividing line in people's outlook, several experts said. That fire gutted the town of Paradise, about 90 miles north of Sacramento.

Claudine Jaenichen, a consultant who's worked with 24 cities to draw up emergency evacuation maps, said the Camp Fire heightened many people's awareness about where they live and their potential escape routes. Residents living where Dixie is burning — in Butte, Plumas and Tehama counties — feel the fear of fire with a particular resonance, does lasix have sulfa in it several said. The area is about 80 miles northeast of Paradise. Many Plumas County residents knew people in Paradise, went there to get groceries or had driven through on their way to Chico, said Brian Ferguson, spokesman with Cal OES.

The North Complex Fire, also in the region, last year killed 16 people does lasix have sulfa in it. Cal OES oversees emergency plans each county must develop. Since the Camp Fire, the state has emphasized getting counties to scrutinize and maintain those plans. Ferguson said identifying roads used for evacuations "is certainly a point of emphasis that's been made." Wingfield cautioned that the lack of fatalities so far does lasix have sulfa in it in the Dixie Fire is a "transient” number.

There's still the possibility of finding a death after the fire is extinguished, he said, though no residents are unaccounted for right now. The region where Dixie is burning also is sparsely populated, and that helped get people out. Quincy, where Plumas County government is located, has a population of fewer than 2,000 does lasix have sulfa in it people. The total county population is about 19,000.

In evacuations for the Dixie Fire, Plumas County sheriff's deputies "tried to go and knock on every door and verify that we've gone back to every resident," Wingfield said. That's not possible does lasix have sulfa in it in more populated areas. So some California cities are incorporating a new type of warning system. A European hi-lo siren to alert residents.

Legislation that does lasix have sulfa in it passed last year allowed its use, which had been prohibited. The state in 2019 also streamlined its evacuation alert system. Previously there were three tiers. Evacuation warning, voluntary evacuations and mandatory does lasix have sulfa in it evacuations.

Now there are just two. Evacuation warning and evacuation orders. "The 'voluntary evacuation' moniker does lasix have sulfa in it was often challenging for the public to interpret, and slowed response times," Ferguson with Cal OES wrote in an email. Cities and counties are crafting plans to help people escape.

Jaenichen, the consultant who's worked with 24 cities on evacuation maps, said she emphasizes the importance of making sure residents are given the information in multiple formats. For example, the cities she works with create QR does lasix have sulfa in it codes that people scan with cellphones to get the information. That helps track how many people access it. Residents tax themselves for fire work Jaenichen worked with Marin County, the San Francisco-area region where Brown lives.

The county last year put a measure on the ballot to fund the Marin Wildfire does lasix have sulfa in it Prevention Authority. Residents agreed to tax themselves 10 cents per square foot of building space they own for the effort. It's expected to generate about $20 million annually for a decade for fire prevention and evacuation work. About 240,000 people live in the 17 cities, towns and does lasix have sulfa in it districts that are part of the Marin Wildfire Prevention Authority’s work.

Jaenichen also worked with Laguna Beach, in Orange County, between San Diego and Los Angeles. The coastal city is the site of one of the most destructive fires in U.S. History. In 1993, fire there consumed 441 homes.

It forced the evacuation of 23,000 people. Nearly all of Laguna Beach is considered a "Very High Fire Hazard Severity Zone" by Cal Fire. Moreover, there are only three ways in and out of the beach town. The Laguna Beach City Council in late 2018 — not long after the Camp Fire — created a Wildfire Mitigation and Fire Safety Subcommittee to analyze risk.

The council since has approved several mitigation measures. Those moves include cutting back more vegetation and expanding the city's outdoor warning system — 21 speakers installed around town. The city also spent more than $197,000 for a study that analyzed how long it would take to evacuate all its residents. The analysis gave estimates for getting people out under various conditions, such as night or day, winter or summer, and weekend or weekday.

In the best-case scenario, with no roadway hazards or closures or smoke limiting driver vision, it would take four hours and 20 minutes to evacuate the city of all its 23,000 residents, the study said. Closure of major roads could nearly double that time. The city plans to use the results "to update evacuation plans, install evacuation route signage, pre-stage traffic management supplies, and conduct community outreach and education," Cassie Walder, a spokeswoman for the city, wrote in an email. Nearby in Irvine, officials did similar planning.

The city of 273,000 analyzed potential wildfire spread as part of its preparation, said Casey George, the city's open space administrator. Irvine drew up a citywide evacuation plan. "We put each part of the city into zones, and each zone has an average number of residents, vehicles and so on," George said. There's an emergency alert that sends the information to cellphones, so residents "click on that link, and it will show that [evacuation] route that they should take." Reprinted from E&E News with permission from POLITICO, LLC.

Copyright 2021. E&E News provides essential news for energy and environment professionals.“In nature nothing exists alone,” wrote Rachel Carson in her 1962 book Silent Spring. She warned that pesticides absorbed by soil run into streams, rivers and reservoirs unnoticed, poisoning living creatures along the way. Carson ignited the modern environmental movement by showing that stewardship of the living earth begins with simple attention.

Her task would likely have been far easier if people could see this interconnected life up close.A lot has changed since then. Glowing tardigrade muscles, hypertension s in bat brain cells, a thrilling flight through a seven-day-old chicken embryo’s nervous system—such otherwise invisible small worlds pulse with energy, undeniably alive. Now in its 11th year, Nikon’s Small World in Motion competition has made these phenomena, and more, visible—collected from microscopes around the world. The first-place winner this year, amateur microscopist Fabian J.

Weston in Pennant Hills, Australia, captured the symbiotic relationship between termites and the single-celled microorganisms found inside them. Within the insects’ gut, these microbes, called protists, help them digest the cellulose—the main component of plants’ cell walls—that they eat and cycle carbon back into the soil. €œThere is a significant gap in our understanding about these termite symbionts and how this unique evolutionary relationship developed with its host, making it well worth exploring and presenting,” Weston told the competition organizers. He hopes the final result will bring greater public awareness to the role that all protists play in every ecosystem on earth.

To capture the video, Weston used a research microscope from the 1970s and polarized light. The final result took months of trial and error and minute changes to the pH, chemical composition and temperature of the termites’ environment tokeep both the insects and the protists inside them alive. The second-place winners, molecular biologists Stephanie Hachey and Christopher Hughes, both at the University of California, Irvine, shot a time-lapse video of an engineered human micro tumor forming and metastasizing, with images taken every 15 minutes for 10 consecutive days. The 2021 winners and honorable mentions explored wildly distinct tiny corners of the universe that were magnified by up to 120 times.

In each case, it’s impossible to ignore the thrumming vitality seen beneath the surface.As scientists and engineers, we feel privileged to have careers that contribute to the progress of knowledge and understanding. The rewards of participating in research and discovery and of mentoring emerging scientists are immense. Science itself is an extraordinary and essential institution. It continues to thrive after centuries of human ingenuity and effort, and to provide significant advancements for societal well-being in areas such as understanding and mitigating global environmental change, achieving innovations for improving public health, and creating technological solutions to widespread societal challenges.

However, science does not happen in a vacuum. It is a social process and therefore exhibits cultural norms and social patterns that affect scientific practices and outcomes. Opportunities and entryways into STEM careers are unequally available to all members of our society, with the result that the practice of science is limited demographically. Further, the benefits of the scientific enterprise have disproportionately benefited members of the upper echelons, and the scientific enterprise has too often been aligned with injustices that reinforce the oppression of the racially disenfranchised, women and LGBTQ communities.

Finally, the culture of science has evolved in ways that reinforce its image as a career path that is unwelcoming to socially subordinated groups. When budding scientists first enter the discipline, it is usually because we are inspired by curiosity, passionate about understanding the natural world and/or eager to contribute to a better society. We don’t typically know much about the culture of science at first. And we certainly do not realize the enormous historical legacy nor the social and power dynamics of the science ecosystem we are becoming a part of.

We begin our careers in a focused disciplinary area, and we very slowly learn how to navigate the science system, the idiosyncrasies of the academy and the requirements for success in a STEM career. Not everyone who enters stays. Looked at as a whole, the scientific enterprise comprises a system of people, ideas, projects, resources, norms and institutions. A “science of science” approach effectively highlights the deep interconnectedness between scientists, knowledge creation and knowledge, but it requires more study regarding the links between the diversity or lack of diversity of scientists and knowledge outcomes.

This is because those who participate in science are not at all reflective of our society. African Americans, Latinos, American Indians and other racially disenfranchised persons represent only about 9 percent of STEM academic positions in the United States, and that number has barely grown over four decades. This percentage is in sharp contrast to the changing demography in the U.S. Women (primarily white women) now earn approximately 41% of STEM doctorate degrees and have increased their share of STEM academic positions to approximately 39% but are not at parity with men especially at higher career positions.

Attrition of female scientists increases as they move up the career ladder, with a 19.5% higher dropout rate over male scientists. Meanwhile, calls for broadening participation in STEM fields are increasing and many investments in excellent programs aimed at advancing STEM diversity, equity and inclusion have been made. Thus far, the majority of efforts have been directed at increasing entry opportunities and training a diverse STEM workforce. So-called “pipeline interventions.” So why has meaningful progress been so slow?.

The long answer involves a clear-eyed view of obstacles to equity (especially systemic racism and sexism in our society and therefore our science system), overrepresentation of a narrow demographic in STEM, outdated but entrenched leadership models, uniquely imbalanced and potentially harmful power dynamics in the academy, and many other issues. The short answer?. It’s the system, not the participants. This means that we should be focusing more of our efforts on systemic reform for the future of science.

The current culture of our science system is an anachronism in today’s world and must change with the times. Today’s system remains rooted in norms and practices that were established decades ago by and for a narrow subset of society. Criteria for entry and advancement, definitions of excellence and success, institutional policies and values, and the incentive systems that determine STEM career trajectories all require a reboot if we are to diversify the system beyond the relatively unencumbered and advantaged members of society. This is becoming increasingly clear via surveys of the scientific community as well.

To its participants, our science system is increasingly perceived as highly competitive, aggressive, demographically exclusionary and still jarringly reflective of its historical roots in a Eurocentric, white, patriarchal society. To be a “successful” scientist today, one must follow a fairly predictable track up the career ladder that is increasingly competitive, monetized and metricized — raising the question whether we have come to a place where we value what we can measure rather than measure what we should value. One must continually compete for research funding, and one’s advancement, promotion and credibility are linked to how much grant funding is brought into one’s institution. This model can be even more challenging for scientists from racially disenfranchised groups and for women because of social and family pressures that may affect them differently, especially in early career stages.

Also, research shows that women and racial minorities in STEM often wish to pursue scientific questions that are different from those of the socially dominant community of scientists. The pressure to obtain research dollars is matched only by the pressure to publish research findings as quickly and as often as possible in the ‘highest-impact’ journals, and to increase the number of citations your publications attract (measured by various widely utilized performance metrics). Like research funding, the publish-or-perish treadmill also suffers from the question of what is most interesting to those in power in the science system. And our peer review system – depending on how it is implemented – suffers from explicit and implicit biases.

Driven by metric-based criteria for recognition and promotion, thre prevalent transactional models of leadership in STEM do not select for a diverse, collaborative workforce. Self-promotion is also a required skill in this environment. To succeed, one should be marketing oneself and garnering as much social media attention as possible (measured by Altmetric Attention scores and other indices). It’s obvious where this road can lead in terms of science quality and the social dynamics of vying for attention.

In addition, subordinated groups in science are not as visible to the science press as are the dominant groups, and they are not perceived as the faces of science thought leadership. At times, social attention for scholars of color and for women may result in negative attention and/or retribution. see the recent case of Pulitzer Prize–winner Nikole Hannah-Jones, author of the New York Times’ 1619 Project, and the associated UNC tenure controversy. The established measures of success select for highly competitive rather than collaborative environments.

A STEM workforce lacking diversity. A narrow demographic at the top. A style of mentoring that elevates the success of mentors more than that of mentees. And potentially harmful environments for groups underrepresented in science.

For example, a recent report on sexual harassment in STEM issued by the National Academy of Sciences reports that academic science is second only to the military in rates of gender harassment, taking an astonishing and corrosive toll on women who enter STEM fields. Minority scientists, who are too often unrepresented in scientific departments, are immersed in unwelcoming environments and historically not given credit for their research contributions. Given this state of affairs, the failure to “move the needle” on diversity, equity and inclusion in STEM seems not only understandable but inevitable. Even if successful in their fields, these dynamics can present a gauntlet of stressful hazards to the personal well-being of scientists.

The toll is also seen in the harm done to institutional reputations when the behavior of some scholars becomes public. So, why should we all care about this?. Isn’t science progressing faster all the time?. Isn’t the rate of research publications steadily increasing?.

Don’t many foreign scientists come to the U.S. To work in our first-class science system?. Well, yes, all true—but creating systemic culture change in STEM in order to diversify the STEM workforce matters critically for the future advancement of science and the translation of its benefits to society. True diversity, equity and inclusion within the scientific community will have a major positive impact for addressing the increasingly complex issues that lie at the heart of the science-society-policy intersection.

It matters significantly – arguably more than any other issue – for the future of science. It matters because scientific conclusions are shaped by the kinds of questions asked, by who conducts research, and by who asks scientific questions (e.g., do health trials include all demographic sectors of society?. ). It matters because research demonstrates that better science outcomes, enhanced innovation, and increased creativity result from broader perspectives and diverse participants (e.g., are diverse viewpoints at the innovation tables?.

). It matters because research priorities that determine who benefits from science and technological advances are set differently by different identities in science (e.g., are technological advances considering impacts on all communities?. ). It matters because the vital link between scientific outcomes and evidence-based public policy relies on public trust in science—and public trust in science in turn relies on full participation, engagement and representativeness in science.

And finally, it matters because the scientific enterprise in the U.S. Is funded largely by the public and should therefore include and benefit the entire public. Our science system is supported by societal investments, the so-called “Science Bargain” or “Science-Society Contract.” Many in science are unaware of a 1945 report called Science. The Endless Frontier, but that report was a landmark policy document for government (public) support of science in this nation.

The report was published at the end of World War II by Vannevar Bush, director of the federal Office of Scientific Research and Development at the time. Bush argued that government spending on university-based and research institution–based science during the war effort should be continued in our postwar society but redirected to the nation’s scientists who were pursuing basic research at our top universities. Thus, research universities and the federal government (and thereby the U.S. Public) entered into an implicit partnership, with the shared goal of stimulating knowledge generation in the service of society.

It seems obvious that, because the public underwrites the scientific effort in the U.S., the entire public deserves to fully participate in the system and to fully benefit from its advances. But that part of the vision remains unrealized at this moment in time. And, if none of those arguments (societally relevant science, more innovative science, more representative science, enhanced public trust in science, financially responsible science) are persuasive, then transforming our science system towards a more just, equitable and inclusive enterprise is still imperative—because it is the morally right thing to do. In the current social context of renewed attention to addressing societal inequities and injustices across many of our American institutions, we cannot leave a science reckoning out of the mix.

Science, too, is a social justice issue. A healthy debate regarding the historical inequities of the science system is already underway. Who gets to participate in science?. Who benefits from it?.

Who is sometimes harmed by it?. Who sets the important research priorities?. When viewed through a social justice lens, the deep misalignment between societal demographics and practicing scientists today is clearly even more unsustainable. The goal, then, is to build a STEM culture of inclusivity and a more representative science that becomes normative through a coordinated, systemic transformation.

We have a unique opportunity to transform the current science paradigm given the social and political times we live in and given that the system is already recently disrupted. To succeed, long-entrenched obstacles to this vision will need to be dismantled. the aforementioned culture of science is one such obstacle. But there is much more.

Inequity in educational opportunity. Myths of meritocracy. Oversimplified metrics for success. Entrenched legacy attitudes about excellence, competition and the faces of leadership.

Career advancement and tenure criteria that do not necessarily align with the values of diverse stakeholders. Unwelcoming or hostile work environments in classroom, laboratory and fieldwork. And more. In a sense, reforming our science system is both simple and complicated.

Simple in the sense that we just need the political will to transform. Complicated in the sense that we are seeking to transform a complex and highly interconnected system with reinforcing feedback dynamics yet many disconnected components. These components include STEM educational systems, higher education, academic institutions, scientific disciplines and professional societies, individual scientists, science policies, the science publishing industry, research funding agencies, and more. All these components must coordinate and align for significant systemic change to occur.

For example, increasing diversity of the STEM pipeline and those at early career stages will not ultimately be successful if the culture of academic institutions does not change to accommodate the lives of diverse participants or if bias keeps them marginalized or drives them out of the system. Because advancing equity, diversity and inclusion in the scientific enterprise is therefore a systems-based challenge, it will require a more coordinated and centralized effort that includes all the embedded components working together towards common goals. Although complex and challenging, such an undertaking will be more than worth the effort. With enormous challenges and possibilities in front of us, science needs all hands on deck.

Let’s create a science system that is by all and for all, adjust the course of the astonishing human history of science towards a more just and inclusive enterprise, and fulfill a more complete vision of the science-society bargain. This is an opinion and analysis article. The views expressed by the author or authors are not necessarily those of Scientific American. Any opinion, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or United States government, the AAAS, or any of the authors’ home institutions.Simple mathematical concepts such as counting appear to be firmly anchored in the natural process of thinking.

Studies have shown that even very young children and animals possess such skills to a certain extent. This is hardly surprising because counting is extremely useful in terms of evolution. For example, it is required for even very simple forms of trading. And counting helps in estimating the size of a hostile group and, accordingly, whether it is better to attack or retreat.Over the past millennia, humans have developed a remarkable notion of counting.

Originally applied to a handful of objects, it was easily extended to vastly different orders of magnitude. Soon a mathematical framework emerged that could be used to describe huge quantities, such as the distance between galaxies or the number of elementary particles in the universe, as well as barely conceivable distances in the microcosm, between atoms or quarks.We can even work with numbers that go beyond anything currently known to be relevant in describing the universe. For example, the number 1010100 (one followed by 10100 zeros, with 10100 representing one followed by 100 zeros) can be written down and used in all kinds of calculations. Writing this number in ordinary decimal notation, however, would require more elementary particles than are probably contained in the universe, even employing just one particle per digit.

Physicists estimate that our cosmos contains fewer than 10100 particles. Yet even such unimaginably large numbers are vanishingly small, compared with infinite sets, which have played an important role in mathematics for more than 100 years. Simply counting objects gives rise to the set of natural numbers, ℕ = {0, 1, 2, 3, …}, which many of us encounter in school. Yet even this seemingly simple concept poses a challenge.

There is no largest natural number. If you keep counting, you will always be able to find a larger number. Can there actually be such a thing as an infinite set?. In the 19th century, this question was very controversial.

In philosophy, this may still be the case. But in modern mathematics, the existence of infinite sets is simply assumed to be true—postulated as an axiom that does not require proof.Set theory is about more than describing sets. Just as, in arithmetic, you learn to apply arithmetical operations to numbers—for example, addition or multiplication—you can also define set-theoretical operations that generate new sets from given ones. You can take unions—{1, 2} and {2, 3, 4} becomes {1, 2, 3, 4}—or intersections—{1, 2} and {2, 3, 4} becomes {2}.

More excitingly, you can form power sets—the family of all subsets of a set.Comparing Set SizesThe power set P(X) of a set X can be easily calculated for small X. For instance, {1, 2} gives you P({1,2}) = {{}, {1}, {2}, {1, 2}}. But P(X) grows rapidly for larger X. For example, every 10-element set has 210 = 1,024 subsets.

If you really want to challenge your imagination, try forming the power set of an infinite set. For example, the power set of the natural numbers, P(ℕ), contains the empty set, ℕ itself, the set of all even numbers, the prime numbers, the set of all numbers with the sum of digits totaling 2021, {12, 17}, and much, much more. As it turns out, the number of elements of this power set exceeds the number of elements in the set of natural numbers.To understand what that means, you first have to understand how the size of sets is defined. For the finite case, you can count the respective elements.

For instance, {1, 2, 3} and {Cantor, Gödel, Cohen} are of the same size. If you wish to compare sets with numerous (but finitely many) elements, there are two well-established methods. One possibility is to count the objects contained in each set and compare the numbers. Sometimes, however, it is easier to match the elements of one set to another.

Then two sets are of the same size if and only if each element of one set can be uniquely paired with an element of the other set (in our example. 1 → Cantor, 2 →Gödel, 3 →Cohen).This pairing method also works for infinite sets. Here, instead of first counting and then deriving concepts such as “greater than” or “equal to,” you follow a reverse strategy. You start with defining what it means that two sets, A and B, are of the same size—namely, there is a mapping that pairs each element of A with exactly one element of B (so that no element of B is left over).

Such a mapping is called bijection.Similarly, A is defined to be less than or equal to B if there is a mapping from A to B that uses each element of B once at most.After we have these notions, the size of sets is denoted by cardinal numbers, or cardinals. For finite sets, these are the usual natural numbers. But for infinite sets, they are abstract quantities that just capture the notion of “size.” For example, “countable” is the cardinal number of the natural numbers (and therefore of every set that has the same size as the natural numbers). It turns out that there are different cardinals.

That is, there are infinite sets A and B with no bijection between them.At first sight, this definition of size seems to lead to contradictions, which were elaborated by the Bohemian mathematician Bernard Bolzano in Paradoxes of the Infinite, published posthumously in 1851. For example, Euclid’s “The whole is greater than the part” appears self-evident. That means if a set A is a proper subset of B (that is, every element of A is in B, but B contains additional elements), then A must be smaller than B. This assertion is not true for infinite sets, however!.

This curious property is one reason some scholars rejected the concept of infinite sets more than 100 years ago.For example, the set of even numbers E = {0, 2, 4, 6, …} is a proper subset of the natural numbers ℕ = {0, 1, 2, …}. Intuitively, you might think that the set E is half the size of ℕ. But in fact, based on our definition, the sets have the same size because each number n in E can be assigned to exactly one number in ℕ (0 →0, 2 →1, 4 →2, …, n →n/2, …).Consequently, the concept of “size” for sets could be dismissed as nonsensical. Alternatively, it could be termed something else.

Cardinality, for example. For the sake of simplicity, we will stick to the conventional terminology, even though it has unexpected consequences at infinity.In the late 1800s, German logician Georg Cantor, founder of modern set theory, discovered that not all infinite sets are equal. According to his proof, the power set P(X) of a (finite or infinite) set X is always larger than X itself. Among other things, it follows that there is no largest infinity and thus no “set of all sets.” An Unresolved Hypothesis There is, however, something akin to a smallest infinity.

All infinite sets are greater than or equal to the natural numbers. Sets X that have the same size as ℕ (with a bijection between ℕ and X) are called countable. Their cardinality is denoted ℵ0, or aleph null. For every infinite cardinal ℵa, there is a next larger cardinal number ℵa+1.

Thus, the smallest infinite cardinal ℵ0 is followed by ℵ1, then ℵ2 and so on. The set ℝ of real numbers (also called the real line) is as large as the power set of ℕ, and this cardinality is denoted 2ℵ0, or “continuum.”In the 1870s, Cantor ruminated over whether the size of ℝ was the smallest possible cardinal above ℵ0—in other words, whether ℵ1 = 2ℵ0. Previously, every infinite subset of ℝ that had been studied had turned out to be either as large as ℕ or ℝ itself. This led Cantor to what is known as the continuum hypothesis (CH).

The assertion that the size of ℝ is the smallest possible uncountable cardinal. For decades, CH kept mathematicians busy, but a proof eluded them. Later, it became clear their efforts had been doomed from the start.Set theory is extremely powerful. It can describe virtually all mathematical concepts.

But it also has limitations. The field is based on the axiomatic system formulated more than 100 years ago by German logician Ernst Zermelo and elaborated by his German-Israeli colleague Abraham Fraenkel. Called ZFC, or Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (C stands for “axiom of choice”), the system is a collection of basic assumptions sufficient to carry out almost all of mathematics. Very few problems require additional assumptions.

But in 1931 Austrian mathematician Kurt Gödel recognized that the system has a fundamental defect. It is incomplete. That is, it is possible to formulate mathematical statements that can neither be refuted nor proved using ZFC. Among other things, it is impossible for a system to prove its own consistency.The most famous example of undecidability in set theory is CH.

In a paper published in 1938, Gödel proved that CH cannot be disproved within ZFC. Neither can it be proved, as Paul Cohen showed 25 years later. It is thus impossible to solve CH using the usual axioms of set theory. Consequently, it remains unclear whether sets exist that are both larger than the natural numbers and smaller than the real numbers.Cardinality is not the only notion to describe the size of a set.

For example, from the point of view of geometry, subsets of the real line ℝ, the two-dimensional plane (sometimes called the x-y plane) or the three-dimensional space can be assigned length, area or volume. A set of points in the plane forming a rectangle with side lengths a and b has an area of a ∙b. Calculating the area of more complicated subsets of the plane sometimes requires other tools, such as the integral calculus taught in school. This method does not suffice for certain complex sets.

But many can still be quantified using the Lebesgue measure, a function that assigns length, area or volume to extremely complicated objects. Even so, it is possible to define subsets of ℝ, or the plane, that are so frayed that they cannot be measured at all.In two-dimensional space, a line (such as the circumference of a circle, a finite segment or a straight line) is always measurable, and its area is zero. It is therefore called a null set. Null sets can also be defined in one dimension.

On the real line, the set with two elements—for example {3, 5}—has a measure zero, whereas an interval such as [3, 5]—that is, the real numbers between three and five—has a measure two. Negligible Sets The concept of a null set is extremely useful in mathematics. Often, a theorem is not true for all real numbers but can be proved for all real numbers outside of a null set. This is usually good enough for most applications.

Yet null sets may seem quite large. For example, the rational numbers within the real line are a null set even though there are infinitely many of them. This is because any countable—or finite—set is a null set. The converse is not true.

A subset of the x-y plane with a large cardinality need be neither measurable nor of large measure. For example, the entire plane with its 2ℵ0 elements has an infinite measure. But the x axis with the same cardinality has a two-dimensional measure (or “area”) zero and thus is a null set of the plane. Such “negligible” sets led to fundamental questions about the size of 10 infinite cardinals, which remained unanswered for a long time.

For example, mathematicians wished to know the minimum size a set must have for it not to be a null set. The family of all null sets is denoted by 𝒩, and the smallest cardinality of a non-null set is denoted by non(𝒩). It follows that ℵ0 <. Non(𝒩) ≤ 2ℵ0, because any set of size ℵ0 is a null set, and the whole plane has size 2ℵ0 and is not a null set.

Thus, ℵ1≤ non(𝒩) ≤ 2ℵ0, because ℵ1 is the smallest uncountable cardinal. If we assume CH, then non(𝒩) = 2ℵ0, because, in that case, ℵ1 = 2ℵ0. We can define another cardinal number, add(𝒩), to answer the question, What is the minimal number of null sets whose union is a non-null set?. This number is less than or equal to non(𝒩).

If A is a non-null set containing non(𝒩) many elements, the union of all the non(𝒩) many one-element subsets of A is the non-null set A. But a smaller number of null sets (though they would not be one-element sets) could also satisfy the requirements. Therefore, add(𝒩) ≤ non(𝒩) holds. The cardinal cov(𝒩) is the smallest number of null sets whose union yields the whole plane.

It is also easy to see that add(𝒩) is smaller than or equal to cov(𝒩) because, as already mentioned, the plane is a non-null set. We can also consider cof(𝒩), the smallest possible size for a basis X of 𝒩. That is, a set X of null sets that contains a superset B of every null set A. (That means A is a subset of B.) These infinite cardinals—add(𝒩), cov(𝒩), non(𝒩) and cof(𝒩)—are important characteristics of the family of null sets.

For each of these four cardinal characteristics, an analogous characteristic can be defined using a different concept of small, or negligible, sets. This other notion of smallness is “meager.” A meager set is a set contained in the countable union of nowhere dense sets, such as the circumference of a circle in the plane, or finitely or countably many such circumferences. In one dimension, the normal numbers form a meager set on the real line, while the remaining reals, the non-normal numbers, constitute a null set. Accordingly, the corresponding cardinal characteristics can be defined for the family of meager sets.

Add(ℳ), non(ℳ), cov(ℳ) and cof(ℳ). Under CH, all characteristics are the same, namely ℵ1, for both null and meager sets. On the other hand, using the method of “forcing,” developed by Cohen, mathematicians Kenneth Kunen and Arnold Miller were able to show in 1981 that it is impossible to prove the statement add(𝒩) = add(ℳ) within ZFC. In other words, the numbers of null and meager sets that must be combined to produce a non-negligible set are not provably equal.

Forcing is a method to construct mathematical universes. A mathematical universe is a model that satisfies the ZFC axioms. To show that a statement X is not refutable in ZFC, it is enough to find a universe in which both ZFC and X are valid. Similarly, to show that X is not provable from ZFC, it is enough to find a universe where ZFC holds but X fails.

Mathematical Universes with Surprising Properties Kunen and Miller used this method to construct a mathematical universe that satisfies add(𝒩) <. Add(ℳ). In this model, more meager than null sets are required to form a non-negligible set. Accordingly, it is impossible to prove add(𝒩) add(ℳ) from ZFC.In contrast, Tomek Bartoszyński discovered three years later that the converse inequality add(𝒩) ≤ add(ℳ) can be proved using ZFC.

This points to an asymmetry between the two notions of smallness. Let us note that this asymmetry is not visible if we assume CH because CH implies ℵ1 = add(𝒩) = add(ℳ). To summarize. Add(𝒩) ≤ add(ℳ) is provable, but neither add(𝒩) = add(ℳ) nor add(𝒩) <.

Add(ℳ) is provable. This is the same effect as with CH. It is trivial to prove that ℵ1 ≤ 2ℵ0, but neither ℵ1 <. 2ℵ0 nor ℵ1 = 2ℵ0 is provable.

In addition to the cardinal numbers defined so far, there are two important cardinal characteristics—𝔟 and 𝔡—that refer to dominating functions of real numbers. For two continuous functions (of which there are 2ℵ0 many) f and g, f is said to be dominated by g if the inequality f(x) <. G(x) holds for all sufficiently large x. For example, a quadratic function such as g(x) = x2 always dominates a linear function, say f(x) = 100x + 30.The cardinal number 𝔡 is defined as the smallest possible size of a set of continuous functions sufficient to dominate every possible continuous function.A variant of this definition gives the cardinal number 𝔟, namely the smallest size of a family B with the property that there is no continuous function that dominates all functions of B.

It can be shown that ℵ1 ≤ 𝔟 ≤ 𝔡 ≤ 2ℵ0 holds.Several additional inequalities have been shown to hold between the 12 infinite cardinals we just defined. All these inequalities are summarized in Cichoń’s diagram, introduced by British mathematician David Fremlin in 1984 and named after his Polish colleague Jacek Cichoń. For typographical reasons, the less-or-equal signs are replaced by arrows. Credit.

Jakob Kellner There are two additional relations. Add(ℳ) is the smaller one of 𝔟 and cov(ℳ). Likewise, cof(ℳ) is the larger of 𝔡 and non(ℳ). These two “dependent” cardinals are marked with a frame in the Cichoń diagram.

The diagram thus comprises 12 uncountable cardinalities of which no more than 10 can be simultaneously different. How Different Can Infinities Be?. If CH holds, however, ℵ1 (the smallest number in the diagram) is equal to 2ℵ0 (the largest number in the diagram), and thus all entries are equal. If, on the other hand, we assume CH to be false, then they could be quite different.For several decades, mathematicians tried to show that none of the less-or-equal relations in Cichoń’s diagram can be strengthened to equalities.

To do that, they constructed many different universes in which they assigned the two smallest uncountable cardinals, ℵ1 and ℵ2, to the entries of the diagram in various ways. For example, they created a universe for which ℵ1 = add(𝒩) = cov(𝒩) and ℵ2 = non(ℳ) = cof(ℳ).This work enabled researchers in the 1980s to confirm that for all pairs of cardinals, only the relationships indicated in the diagram can be proved in ZFC. More precisely, for every labeling of the (independent) Cichoń diagram entries with the values ℵ1 and ℵ2 that honors the inequalities of the diagram, there is a universe that realizes the given labeling.So we have known for nearly four decades that all assignments of ℵ1 and ℵ2 to the diagram are possible. But what can we say for more than two values?.

Could, for example, all the independent entries be simultaneously different?. Some cases with three characteristics have been known for 50 years, and in the 2010s, more universes were discovered (or constructed) in which up to seven different cardinals appeared in the Cichoń diagram.In a 2019 paper we constructed with Israeli mathematician Saharon Shelah of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, a universe in which the maximum possible number of different infinite values—10, that is—appears in Cichoń’s diagram. In doing so, however, we used a stronger system of axioms than ZFC, one that assumes the existence of “large cardinals,” infinities whose existence is not provable in ZFC alone.While we were very pleased with this result, we were not entirely satisfied. We worked for two more years to find a solution using only the ZFC axioms.

Together with Shelah and Colombian mathematician Diego Mejía of Shizuoka University in Japan, we finally succeeded in proving the result without these additional assumptions.We have thus shown that the 10 characteristics of the real numbers can all be different. Let us note that we did not show that there can be at least, at most or precisely 10 infinite cardinals between ℵ1 and the continuum. This was already proved by Robert Solovay in 1963. In fact, the size of the set of real numbers can vary greatly.

There could be eight, 27 or infinitely many cardinal numbers between ℵ1 and 2ℵ0—even uncountably many. Rather our result proves that there are mathematical universes in which the 10 specific cardinal numbers between ℵ1 and 2ℵ0 turn out to be different. This is not the end of the story. As is usual for mathematics, many questions remain open, and new ones arise.

For example, in addition to the cardinal numbers described here, many other infinite cardinalities lying between ℵ1 and the continuum have been discovered since the 1940s. Their precise relationships to one another are unknown. To distinguish some of these characteristics in addition to those in Cichoń’s diagram is one of the upcoming challenges. Another one is to show that other orderings of 10 different values are possible.

Unlike in the case for the two values ℵ1 and ℵ2, where we know that all possible orders are consistent, in the case of all 10 values, we could only show the consistency of two different orderings. So, who knows, there may still be hitherto undiscovered equalities—involving more than two characteristics—hidden in the diagram.This article originally appeared in Spektrum der Wissenschaft and was reproduced with permission..

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At 18,400 feet, my body was craving oxygen, and I had to concentrate on pulling enough air into my lungs can you get lasix over the counter. I was on the summit of Cerro Toco, a stratovolcano overlooking Chile’s Chajnantor Plateau, now home to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, one of the world’s premier radio telescopes. Between the thin atmosphere and the barren red terrain of the mountain, it felt like I was on Mars.

My colleagues and I were can you get lasix over the counter testing the atmospheric conditions on Cerro Toco. If they were good enough, they might justify taking on the technical challenges of building an observatory at such a remote, high-altitude site. Earth’s atmosphere is a problem for astronomers, and clouds frustrate many an observer.

Atmospheric turbulence smears starlight, making stars appear to dance and flicker when close can you get lasix over the counter to the horizon. Molecules such as water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere absorb incoming starlight, particularly infrared light. With more than half of Earth’s air below the summit of Cerro Toco (a point repeatedly raised by my burning lungs), we hoped that new and exciting insights could come from a dedicated infrared telescope there.

The sense of adventure that had led me to this summit had also sparked my fascination with infrared astronomy, where scientists peer at the cosmos in light too red for the human eye to can you get lasix over the counter see. Infrared light tends to come from the dimmest and most distant objects observable. One class of objects best seen in the infrared is brown dwarfs.

When I can you get lasix over the counter was in graduate school in the early 2000s, these bodies had only recently been discovered, and they presented many tempting mysteries. I came to be captivated by these uncanny orbs, which, in terms of their classification, occupy a boundary zone between stars and planets. I wondered where and how they formed and what they were like.

I learned through my research that in addition to being interesting in their own right, brown dwarfs serve as an important bridge to our understanding of can you get lasix over the counter both planets and stars, with temperatures and masses intermediate between the two. Now I and other brown dwarf astronomers are enjoying a sweet spot for research—there are still many brown dwarfs waiting to be discovered, and we can build on the wealth of previous research to uncover new details of physical processes at work on these objects. We finally have the technological tools to study the atmospheres of brown dwarfs, for example, as well as their wind and rotation speeds, and to try to determine whether they might even host planets of their own.

In-Between Objects Most stars are powered by the fusion of hydrogen into helium, a wonderfully stable process that keeps stars burning can you get lasix over the counter at the same temperature and brightness for billions of years. But if a would-be star never reaches high-enough temperatures or pressures to sustain hydrogen fusion, it is a brown dwarf, with a maximum mass of 8 percent of our sun’s, or about 80 times the mass of Jupiter. Recent studies indicate that brown dwarfs are nearly as common as stars, and they are everywhere.

Brown dwarfs have been found in stellar nurseries can you get lasix over the counter alongside young protostars. They have been found in binary systems paired with white dwarfs, having survived potential engulfment by the white dwarf’s previous red giant form. (Our sun, a yellow dwarf star, will one day turn into a bloated red giant, and after it dies, it will become a white dwarf.) Some of the closest stellar systems to our sun are brown dwarfs—the third and fourth nearest extrasolar systems, at 6.5 and 7.3 light-years, respectively (the closest are Alpha Centauri and Barnard’s star).

And yet, despite their ubiquity, most people have never heard of can you get lasix over the counter brown dwarfs. Although they lack hydrogen fusion, brown dwarfs do emit light—thermal radiation from the heat within them. They start out relatively hot (around 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit), and over the subsequent billions of years, they cool and dim.

Brown dwarfs never die can you get lasix over the counter. They spend eternity cooling off and fading away. The coldest known brown dwarf checks in at a temperature below the freezing point of water.

Because they are so cool, most can you get lasix over the counter of the light they emit is at infrared wavelengths. They are far too faint for the unaided human eye to see in our night sky, but if we could look at them up close, they would probably have a dull orange-red or magenta hue. In the more than two decades since astronomers began studying brown dwarfs, we have formed a fairly clear picture of their basic characteristics.

Like our sun, brown dwarfs are composed almost entirely can you get lasix over the counter of hydrogen. The temperatures in their upper atmospheres are cool enough, however, that a variety of molecules can form. Signatures of water vapor are seen in nearly all brown dwarfs.

As they cool further, can you get lasix over the counter their atmospheric chemistry changes, and different molecules and clouds become predominant. The evolution of a brown dwarf’s atmosphere depends on its mass and age. Imagine a brown dwarf with a mass 40 times that of Jupiter, for instance.

For the first 100 million years, it will can you get lasix over the counter have an atmospheric composition similar to that of a red dwarf star, with titanium oxide and carbon monoxide present in the mix. Between 100 million and 500 million years, the atmosphere will cool, and dusty clouds made of minerals such as enstatite and quartz will form. Roughly a billion years after that, the clouds will break up and sink, and methane will become the dominant molecular species in the upper atmosphere.

The coolest known brown can you get lasix over the counter dwarf shows evidence of water-ice clouds, as well as water vapor and methane. We expect its atmosphere to contain significant amounts of ammonia, similar to what we see on Jupiter. Beyond these properties, however, there are many things about brown dwarfs that we do not yet know.

The mysterious nature of these objects has inspired some can you get lasix over the counter far-fetched ideas. Brown dwarfs were once considered to be a possible reservoir of dark matter, although this idea was quickly abandoned when it became clear that brown dwarfs emit light (that is, they are not dark) and that their contribution to the total mass of our galaxy is small. More recently, scientists proposed that life could form in the cool upper regions of brown dwarfs’ atmospheres—an idea that brown dwarf experts quickly squashed because the dynamics are such that any life-form would cycle into deeper layers of the atmosphere that are hot and inhospitable.

And then there was the hoax of the Nibiru cataclysm, can you get lasix over the counter a prophesy put forward in 1995 that predicted an imminent, disastrous encounter between Earth and a brown dwarf. Astronomers would be very excited to see a brown dwarf up close, but there is no scientific evidence to support this doomsday scenario, and a brown dwarf would be visible for hundreds or thousands of years prior to any close encounter. The First Brown Dwarfs Scientists predicted brown dwarfs in the 1960s based on what they knew about how stars and planets form.

It seemed that this intermediate category should exist, can you get lasix over the counter but astronomers were not finding any such objects in the sky. It turned out that brown dwarfs are simply very, very faint, and most of the light they emit is infrared. And infrared technology was still in its infancy—just not up to the task.

Then came can you get lasix over the counter the year 1995, a big one for astronomy. Astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz found 51 Pegasi b, the first exoplanet known to be orbiting a regular star. Perhaps more important, at least to this highly biased author, the first brown dwarfs were discovered.

Teide 1 was identified in the famous Pleiades star can you get lasix over the counter cluster. Astronomers Rafael Rebolo López, María Rosa Zapatero-Osorio and Eduardo L. Martín first spotted it in optical images from the 0.80-meter telescope at the Teide Observatory in the Canary Islands.

The object was young, still glowing can you get lasix over the counter slightly from its formation. The team observed the signatures of several molecules in its atmosphere, including lithium. Stars usually burn up lithium as soon as they form, so this amazing detection proved that nuclear fusion was not occurring.

They published their finding can you get lasix over the counter in September 1995. Credit. Illustration by Ron Miller (objects and atmospheres) and Jen Christiansen (H-R diagram) Two months later astronomers announced the discovery of a second brown dwarf, Gliese 229B, a companion to another star.

A group of astronomers at the California Institute of Technology and Johns can you get lasix over the counter Hopkins University first saw the object in an infrared image from the Palomar Observatory. They immediately knew that it was strange. It had unusual colors and displayed the signature of methane in its atmosphere.

Conditions must be very cold for methane to can you get lasix over the counter be present because the highly reactive molecule usually turns into carbon monoxide at higher temperatures. Later observations revealed that the brown dwarf is about the same width as Jupiter, with a diameter of nearly 129,000 kilometers, but much denser, with 70 times as much mass. By the time I started graduate school in 2000, we knew of more brown dwarfs, though not that many.

I was can you get lasix over the counter focused on building infrared instruments, and I needed a subject for my research topic. My Ph.D. Adviser studied star formation, so I decided to search for brown dwarfs in star-forming regions.

I ended up discovering a good number of brown dwarfs in my can you get lasix over the counter thesis work, including some that were the first known to have masses putting them near the range of planets. At the time we had no idea how these things formed, and we did not know whether there was a lower-mass threshold, but we started finding smaller and smaller objects. All in all, my thesis work published fewer than 20 new brown dwarf discoveries, but they made a significant contribution to the total number known.

Since then, new instruments have found many, many more can you get lasix over the counter. The main contributors were the 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), an infrared survey conducted in the early 2000s, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a space telescope launched in 2009. The current tally of brown dwarfs is about 3,000.

There are many more can you get lasix over the counter to be found, though—estimates suggest that the Milky Way contains between 25 billion and 100 billion brown dwarfs. Formation Scenarios As the lowest-mass outcome of the star-formation process, brown dwarfs offer astronomers a unique chance to deepen our understanding of the basic steps involved in the birth of stars and planets. Stars form in complexes of gas (mostly molecular hydrogen) and dust known as molecular clouds.

If a molecular cloud contains enough mass, gravity can overcome the gas pressure supporting the cloud and cause it to collapse into a star can you get lasix over the counter. During the collapse, any small amount of rotation in the cloud becomes amplified, much like how ice skaters spin faster when they pull their arms in. This rotation of the cloud material leads to the formation of a circumstellar disk of matter surrounding the nascent star, which then becomes a crucible for planet formation.

When brown dwarfs were first discovered, astronomers assumed they might form in a process similar to that for stars, but they can you get lasix over the counter were perplexed as to how the gravity from such a small mass was able to overcome gas pressure and initiate a collapse. In writing this article, I looked back over some grant and telescope proposals from early in my career, most of which were aimed at better understanding the formation mechanism of brown dwarfs. At the time there were several competing ideas.

Some theories involved disrupting the formation of a star before can you get lasix over the counter it had reached its final mass. Perhaps some process physically removed the brown dwarf or burned off its natal environment, leaving behind a miniature star?. Other hypotheses invoked a scaled-down version of star formation or a scaled-up version of planet formation.

This is a lovely example of using a variety of possible theories to make distinct, testable can you get lasix over the counter predictions. As we discovered the ubiquity of circumstellar disks around brown dwarfs, determined the distribution of stellar and brown dwarf masses in a variety of environments, and mapped the orbits of brown dwarfs in binary pairs, it became clear that most brown dwarfs seem to form like scaled-down stars—but from a smaller reservoir of gas. And the fact that brown dwarfs form circumstellar disks raises the tantalizing possibility that they host planets.

Although we have never seen any for sure, it is very likely that planets grow in these disks can you get lasix over the counter just as they do around stars. Scientists hope the coming years will finally see the confirmed discovery of worlds orbiting brown dwarfs. Recently researchers discovered isolated brown dwarfs with masses similar to those of giant planets (less than 13 times the mass of Jupiter), which again raised the question of how they might have formed.

Could some of these planetary-mass brown dwarfs have arisen in the circumstellar disks of more massive stars—in other words, formed just can you get lasix over the counter as planets do?. To test the mechanism for the formation of planetlike masses, my colleagues and I proposed a survey with the Hubble Space Telescope. Because Hubble is in orbit, it avoids the smearing and absorption of light by Earth’s atmosphere, which makes it ideal for imaging binary pairs of brown dwarfs.

Through this survey, in 2020 we discovered can you get lasix over the counter a unique system of brown dwarfs that strongly supports a starlike-formation mechanism for planetlike masses. The system, Oph 98 AB, is very young in cosmic terms (three million years old), and its two components weigh in at 15 and eight times the mass of Jupiter. These extremely low-mass objects are separated by 200 times the distance between Earth and the sun.

Because Oph 98 A and B are so light and so widely separated, the system has the lowest gravitational binding energy of can you get lasix over the counter any known binary pair. The weak binding energy means that these bodies must have formed in their current orientation, rather than originating elsewhere and later becoming a pair, which points to a starlike-formation mechanism. And the young age of the system (yes, we consider three million years young!.

) means that planetary-mass objects apparently do not take any longer to form can you get lasix over the counter than stars. New Insights Brown dwarf science has now reached a stage where we are able to make more precise measurements and ask more detailed questions than ever before about these still mysterious objects. Among the most interesting recent discoveries are the coldest brown dwarfs, known as Y dwarfs.

These objects have temperatures can you get lasix over the counter ranging from 350 degrees F down to –10 degrees F. I love to joke when working on Y dwarfs that I am studying the coolest systems in the galaxy!. Though not quite as cold as Jupiter (–234 degrees F), these Y dwarfs have enabled us to make the first meaningful comparison between brown dwarfs and the atmospheres of the giant planets in our solar system.

Y dwarfs can you get lasix over the counter are difficult to observe because they are both cool and very dim. The light they do emit is predominantly in the infrared range, at wavelengths of three to five microns, where Earth’s atmosphere makes observations difficult. Regardless, my colleagues and I have published spectra of several Y dwarfs and used theoretical models to infer the presence of water-ice clouds, as well as a significant amount of vertical mixing in the atmosphere.

In this same wavelength range, Jupiter emits its own can you get lasix over the counter light (rather than just reflecting the light of our sun) and shows significant vertical mixing as well. Our hope is that by studying Y dwarfs, we will be able to disentangle properties of Jupiter that come from its planetary nature—in other words, the fact that it formed in the circumstellar disk of our sun and is constantly illuminated by sunlight—and properties that may be ubiquitous among cool gaseous objects, be they planets, exoplanets or brown dwarfs. Thus far our studies are showing that highly dynamic atmospheres tend to be the norm.

These insights about brown dwarf atmospheres have led to can you get lasix over the counter a new subfield. Exometeorology. Although brown dwarfs are too far away for us to visually examine their atmospheric features, we can see their imprint through changes in brightness.

As a cloud or other feature rotates in and can you get lasix over the counter out of view, it changes the light coming from the brown dwarf. Astronomers have analyzed the brightness variations of brown dwarfs over many rotations and have created maps of their spots and bands, which look remarkably like the familiar stripes and storms on the giant planets in our own solar system. Some brown dwarfs have been found to change in brightness by up to 25 percent over one rotation.

The results of these studies are leading us to better understand atmospheric processes more generally—we have found that brown dwarfs with temperatures at which clouds break can you get lasix over the counter up show large variations in brightness and that young objects tend to show greater variability in brightness. Scientists have also discovered other similarities between brown dwarfs and gas giants. Both, for example, tend to have strong magnetic fields and aurorae, as revealed by radio observations of the signatures of charged particles spiraling in their magnetic fields.

The measured magnetic field strengths for brown dwarfs can you get lasix over the counter are 1,000 times stronger than Jupiter’s magnetic field and 10,000 times stronger than Earth’s. I like to imagine what the night sky might look like from one of these brown dwarfs—given the beauty of Earth’s aurora borealis, it would likely be a spectacular sight. Recently a student’s question prompted another project to examine how the atmospheres on brown dwarfs compare with those on planets.

When I teach courses in introductory astronomy, we cover the planets of the solar system (and of course, I sprinkle in a lot of information can you get lasix over the counter about brown dwarfs as well). A tidbit I present is that the length of a Jovian day depends on how you measure it. If you clock the motion of visible features in Jupiter’s equatorial region, you measure a rotation period that is five minutes shorter than the rotation period measured in the radio signal, which probes its interior rotation.

A student asked me why this difference in rotation period occurs, and I replied that it was because Jupiter’s equatorial features are pushed along by strong zonal can you get lasix over the counter winds. The winds on Earth are driven by the redistribution of solar energy, but we are not sure to what degree this applies to Jupiter’s winds. After the lecture, I started thinking about this further.

Astronomers have measured can you get lasix over the counter radio emission in brown dwarfs, which occurs via the same mechanism as Jupiter’s radio emission, so we can measure an interior rotation period. And we can use our method of monitoring brightness changes to measure the atmosphere’s rotation period. Thus, I hatched an idea to measure the wind speed on a brown dwarf for the first time.

The best candidate we had to try can you get lasix over the counter out the technique was a methane brown dwarf with confirmed radio emission. To determine the wind speed, we would need to measure both periods to a precision of less than 30 seconds. My colleagues and I submitted a proposal to use the Spitzer Space Telescope to measure the brown dwarf’s brightness variations and applied to use the Karl G.

Jansky Very Large Array in New Mexico to measure a can you get lasix over the counter more precise radio period. It still feels like a small miracle that our measurements revealed a period difference of just more than a minute, which equates to a wind speed of 2,300 kilometers per hour. We published our findings last year in the journal Science.

This high wind speed can you get lasix over the counter on an isolated brown dwarf means that atmospheric winds are not always driven by the redistribution of solar energy, leaving open the question of whether Jupiter’s winds are driven by the sun. Astronomers continue to search for more brown dwarfs. Some surveys focus on identifying large samples of brown dwarfs via deep imaging surveys of the whole sky such as 2MASS, WISE, and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS).

Citizen scientists have also become involved in the search through projects such as Backyard Worlds, which allows anyone to examine WISE data for signs of brown dwarfs and other moving objects can you get lasix over the counter. We expect that upcoming large surveys with the Vera C. Rubin Observatory (due to begin observing early next year) and the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (launching in 2025) will work to further complete our census of brown dwarfs.

Sadly, we could not can you get lasix over the counter get funding for the telescope on Cerro Toco, and it was never built. But once the James Webb Space Telescope is launched later this year, astronomers will have an unprecedented look at brown dwarfs in the infrared, without interference from Earth’s atmosphere. The first cycle of observations planned includes programs to study the atmospheric chemistry of Y dwarfs and the cloud composition of dusty brown dwarfs and even a search for planetary systems around brown dwarfs.

Exciting times are certainly ahead for those of us who study some of the cosmos’s most overlooked objects.California can you get lasix over the counter resident Mark Brown knows too well the danger that climate change poses to the West. A former fire team chief, Brown in 2018 responded to the Camp Fire blaze, California's deadliest wildfire. At least 85 people were killed in the multibillion-dollar disaster, including four victims who died in their cars trying to escape and a fifth person who perished in a desperate run for safety.

Brown's now working can you get lasix over the counter to ensure that horror doesn't repeat itself. As an executive officer with the Marin Wildfire Prevention Authority, Brown is helping to reduce the risk of wildfire and plan for survival if one erupts. Of note are agency efforts to develop evacuation maps and remove flammable vegetation alongside key routes — all to prevent residents from dying as they try and get away.

"We need to make our evacuation routes survivable in a traffic jam, so that even if [people] are caught in a traffic jam, they can stay in their car can you get lasix over the counter and they can survive in their car," said Brown, 52, retired deputy chief of the Marin County Fire Department. That's safer, he said, "than having to get out of the car and flee, and then get caught, and have no protection at all." It's part of a shift in the Golden State, where deadly and destructive fires have hit repeatedly over the last decade. Cities, counties and individuals are planning both to prevent fires, and to make sure people survive when blazes start.

Because with climate can you get lasix over the counter change, fires burn hotter and faster. Fleeing for safety increasingly is the only choice. "People are realizing that the wildfires of today, the rate they're burning, the damage they're doing, the severity of them is not the type of wildfires that we saw 10-20-30 years ago," said Daniel Berlant, assistant deputy director at the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, or Cal Fire.

"People really are understanding that their can you get lasix over the counter life is on the line. They can't wait it out, or just use their garden hose." The emphasis on evacuations may have saved lives this summer. California is now battling the second-largest wildfire in state history — the Dixie Fire — yet so far there are no known fatalities.

That's in spite of the fact Dixie can you get lasix over the counter has burned more than 500,000 acres, destroyed a historic downtown and remains mostly out of control in a rural area about 90 miles northeast of Chico, Calif. Officials credited planning that started years earlier, a community meeting on fire preparedness in May and people's willingness to leave when evacuations started. €œMost people, particularly in this part of the state of California ...

The remote areas, timbered areas, are aware of what happened in the Camp Fire and also the [2020] North Complex [Fire], and many other areas in the last few years," said Carson Wingfield, incident commander at can you get lasix over the counter the Dixie Fire's Emergency Operations Center, "So when we come through and we're asking them to go ... They'll go, usually." State and local emergency officials said they hope a transformation is underway, as California confronts heightened wildfire risk. Cal Fire and the California Governor's Office of Emergency Services (Cal OES) are pressing local authorities to plan more aggressively for extreme fires.

The Federal Emergency can you get lasix over the counter Management Agency over the last five fiscal years has given roughly $62 million in hazard planning and prevention assistance money, which Cal OES has passed through as grants. To be sure, prevention remains a top priority, and the state has spent billions of dollars in that area. But there's also a growing acceptance that some fires amplified by climate change are too ferocious to risk not evacuating.

"These are fires that are burning at record speeds, with flame length sometimes hundreds of feet high, that are like can you get lasix over the counter a freight train," Berlant said. "Even our own firefighters, with the best equipment, the best training and experience on their side, we're challenged to fight and to stop these fires against the weather conditions we're experiencing. "We have seen a lot more people, I think, evacuated areas that maybe 10 years ago would have been a lot harder to get them to leave their homes," he added.

Deadly Camp Fire motivates action While state and local authorities for decades have done emergency planning, the 2018 can you get lasix over the counter Camp Fire, in the Sierra Nevada foothills, created somewhat of a dividing line in people's outlook, several experts said. That fire gutted the town of Paradise, about 90 miles north of Sacramento. Claudine Jaenichen, a consultant who's worked with 24 cities to draw up emergency evacuation maps, said the Camp Fire heightened many people's awareness about where they live and their potential escape routes.

Residents living where Dixie is burning can you get lasix over the counter — in Butte, Plumas and Tehama counties — feel the fear of fire with a particular resonance, several said. The area is about 80 miles northeast of Paradise. Many Plumas County residents knew people in Paradise, went there to get groceries or had driven through on their way to Chico, said Brian Ferguson, spokesman with Cal OES.

The North Complex Fire, also in the region, last can you get lasix over the counter year killed 16 people. Cal OES oversees emergency plans each county must develop. Since the Camp Fire, the state has emphasized getting counties to scrutinize and maintain those plans.

Ferguson said identifying roads used for evacuations "is certainly a point of emphasis that's been can you get lasix over the counter made." Wingfield cautioned that the lack of fatalities so far in the Dixie Fire is a "transient” number. There's still the possibility of finding a death after the fire is extinguished, he said, though no residents are unaccounted for right now. The region where Dixie is burning also is sparsely populated, and that helped get people out.

Quincy, where Plumas County government can you get lasix over the counter is located, has a population of fewer than 2,000 people. The total county population is about 19,000. In evacuations for the Dixie Fire, Plumas County sheriff's deputies "tried to go and knock on every door and verify that we've gone back to every resident," Wingfield said.

That's not possible can you get lasix over the counter in more populated areas. So some California cities are incorporating a new type of warning system. A European hi-lo siren to alert residents.

Legislation that passed last year allowed its use, which had been can you get lasix over the counter prohibited. The state in 2019 also streamlined its evacuation alert system. Previously there were three tiers.

Evacuation warning, voluntary evacuations and can you get lasix over the counter mandatory evacuations. Now there are just two. Evacuation warning and evacuation orders.

"The 'voluntary evacuation' moniker was often challenging for the public to interpret, and slowed response times," Ferguson with Cal OES can you get lasix over the counter wrote in an email. Cities and counties are crafting plans to help people escape. Jaenichen, the consultant who's worked with 24 cities on evacuation maps, said she emphasizes the importance of making sure residents are given the information in multiple formats.

For example, the cities she works with create QR codes that can you get lasix over the counter people scan with cellphones to get the information. That helps track how many people access it. Residents tax themselves for fire work Jaenichen worked with Marin County, the San Francisco-area region where Brown lives.

The county last year put a can you get lasix over the counter measure on the ballot to fund the Marin Wildfire Prevention Authority. Residents agreed to tax themselves 10 cents per square foot of building space they own for the effort. It's expected to generate about $20 million annually for a decade for fire prevention and evacuation work.

About 240,000 people live in the 17 cities, towns and districts that are part of the Marin Wildfire Prevention Authority’s can you get lasix over the counter work. Jaenichen also worked with Laguna Beach, in Orange County, between San Diego and Los Angeles. The coastal city is the site of one of the most destructive fires in U.S.

History. In 1993, fire there consumed 441 homes. It forced the evacuation of 23,000 people.

Nearly all of Laguna Beach is considered a "Very High Fire Hazard Severity Zone" by Cal Fire. Moreover, there are only three ways in and out of the beach town. The Laguna Beach City Council in late 2018 — not long after the Camp Fire — created a Wildfire Mitigation and Fire Safety Subcommittee to analyze risk.

The council since has approved several mitigation measures. Those moves include cutting back more vegetation and expanding the city's outdoor warning system — 21 speakers installed around town. The city also spent more than $197,000 for a study that analyzed how long it would take to evacuate all its residents.

The analysis gave estimates for getting people out under various conditions, such as night or day, winter or summer, and weekend or weekday. In the best-case scenario, with no roadway hazards or closures or smoke limiting driver vision, it would take four hours and 20 minutes to evacuate the city of all its 23,000 residents, the study said. Closure of major roads could nearly double that time.

The city plans to use the results "to update evacuation plans, install evacuation route signage, pre-stage traffic management supplies, and conduct community outreach and education," Cassie Walder, a spokeswoman for the city, wrote in an email. Nearby in Irvine, officials did similar planning. The city of 273,000 analyzed potential wildfire spread as part of its preparation, said Casey George, the city's open space administrator.

Irvine drew up a citywide evacuation plan. "We put each part of the city into zones, and each zone has an average number of residents, vehicles and so on," George said. There's an emergency alert that sends the information to cellphones, so residents "click on that link, and it will show that [evacuation] route that they should take." Reprinted from E&E News with permission from POLITICO, LLC.

Copyright 2021. E&E News provides essential news for energy and environment professionals.“In nature nothing exists alone,” wrote Rachel Carson in her 1962 book Silent Spring. She warned that pesticides absorbed by soil run into streams, rivers and reservoirs unnoticed, poisoning living creatures along the way.

Carson ignited the modern environmental movement by showing that stewardship of the living earth begins with simple attention. Her task would likely have been far easier if people could see this interconnected life up close.A lot has changed since then. Glowing tardigrade muscles, hypertension s in bat brain cells, a thrilling flight through a seven-day-old chicken embryo’s nervous system—such otherwise invisible small worlds pulse with energy, undeniably alive.

Now in its 11th year, Nikon’s Small World in Motion competition has made these phenomena, and more, visible—collected from microscopes around the world. The first-place winner this year, amateur microscopist Fabian J. Weston in Pennant Hills, Australia, captured the symbiotic relationship between termites and the single-celled microorganisms found inside them.

Within the insects’ gut, these microbes, called protists, help them digest the cellulose—the main component of plants’ cell walls—that they eat and cycle carbon back into the soil. €œThere is a significant gap in our understanding about these termite symbionts and how this unique evolutionary relationship developed with its host, making it well worth exploring and presenting,” Weston told the competition organizers. He hopes the final result will bring greater public awareness to the role that all protists play in every ecosystem on earth.

To capture the video, Weston used a research microscope from the 1970s and polarized light. The final result took months of trial and error and minute changes to the pH, chemical composition and temperature of the termites’ environment tokeep both the insects and the protists inside them alive. The second-place winners, molecular biologists Stephanie Hachey and Christopher Hughes, both at the University of California, Irvine, shot a time-lapse video of an engineered human micro tumor forming and metastasizing, with images taken every 15 minutes for 10 consecutive days.

The 2021 winners and honorable mentions explored wildly distinct tiny corners of the universe that were magnified by up to 120 times. In each case, it’s impossible to ignore the thrumming vitality seen beneath the surface.As scientists and engineers, we feel privileged to have careers that contribute to the progress of knowledge and understanding. The rewards of participating in research and discovery and of mentoring emerging scientists are immense.

Science itself is an extraordinary and essential institution. It continues to thrive after centuries of human ingenuity and effort, and to provide significant advancements for societal well-being in areas such as understanding and mitigating global environmental change, achieving innovations for improving public health, and creating technological solutions to widespread societal challenges. However, science does not happen in a vacuum.

It is a social process and therefore exhibits cultural norms and social patterns that affect scientific practices and outcomes. Opportunities and entryways into STEM careers are unequally available to all members of our society, with the result that the practice of science is limited demographically. Further, the benefits of the scientific enterprise have disproportionately benefited members of the upper echelons, and the scientific enterprise has too often been aligned with injustices that reinforce the oppression of the racially disenfranchised, women and LGBTQ communities.

Finally, the culture of science has evolved in ways that reinforce its image as a career path that is unwelcoming to socially subordinated groups. When budding scientists first enter the discipline, it is usually because we are inspired by curiosity, passionate about understanding the natural world and/or eager to contribute to a better society. We don’t typically know much about the culture of science at first.

And we certainly do not realize the enormous historical legacy nor the social and power dynamics of the science ecosystem we are becoming a part of. We begin our careers in a focused disciplinary area, and we very slowly learn how to navigate the science system, the idiosyncrasies of the academy and the requirements for success in a STEM career. Not everyone who enters stays.

Looked at as a whole, the scientific enterprise comprises a system of people, ideas, projects, resources, norms and institutions. A “science of science” approach effectively highlights the deep interconnectedness between scientists, knowledge creation and knowledge, but it requires more study regarding the links between the diversity or lack of diversity of scientists and knowledge outcomes. This is because those who participate in science are not at all reflective of our society.

African Americans, Latinos, American Indians and other racially disenfranchised persons represent only about 9 percent of STEM academic positions in the United States, and that number has barely grown over four decades. This percentage is in sharp contrast to the changing demography in the U.S. Women (primarily white women) now earn approximately 41% of STEM doctorate degrees and have increased their share of STEM academic positions to approximately 39% but are not at parity with men especially at higher career positions.

Attrition of female scientists increases as they move up the career ladder, with a 19.5% higher dropout rate over male scientists. Meanwhile, calls for broadening participation in STEM fields are increasing and many investments in excellent programs aimed at advancing STEM diversity, equity and inclusion have been made. Thus far, the majority of efforts have been directed at increasing entry opportunities and training a diverse STEM workforce.

So-called “pipeline interventions.” So why has meaningful progress been so slow?. The long answer involves a clear-eyed view of obstacles to equity (especially systemic racism and sexism in our society and therefore our science system), overrepresentation of a narrow demographic in STEM, outdated but entrenched leadership models, uniquely imbalanced and potentially harmful power dynamics in the academy, and many other issues. The short answer?.

It’s the system, not the participants. This means that we should be focusing more of our efforts on systemic reform for the future of science. The current culture of our science system is an anachronism in today’s world and must change with the times.

Today’s system remains rooted in norms and practices that were established decades ago by and for a narrow subset of society. Criteria for entry and advancement, definitions of excellence and success, institutional policies and values, and the incentive systems that determine STEM career trajectories all require a reboot if we are to diversify the system beyond the relatively unencumbered and advantaged members of society. This is becoming increasingly clear via surveys of the scientific community as well.

To its participants, our science system is increasingly perceived as highly competitive, aggressive, demographically exclusionary and still jarringly reflective of its historical roots in a Eurocentric, white, patriarchal society. To be a “successful” scientist today, one must follow a fairly predictable track up the career ladder that is increasingly competitive, monetized and metricized — raising the question whether we have come to a place where we value what we can measure rather than measure what we should value. One must continually compete for research funding, and one’s advancement, promotion and credibility are linked to how much grant funding is brought into one’s institution.

This model can be even more challenging for scientists from racially disenfranchised groups and for women because of social and family pressures that may affect them differently, especially in early career stages. Also, research shows that women and racial minorities in STEM often wish to pursue scientific questions that are different from those of the socially dominant community of scientists. The pressure to obtain research dollars is matched only by the pressure to publish research findings as quickly and as often as possible in the ‘highest-impact’ journals, and to increase the number of citations your publications attract (measured by various widely utilized performance metrics).

Like research funding, the publish-or-perish treadmill also suffers from the question of what is most interesting to those in power in the science system. And our peer review system – depending on how it is implemented – suffers from explicit and implicit biases. Driven by metric-based criteria for recognition and promotion, thre prevalent transactional models of leadership in STEM do not select for a diverse, collaborative workforce.

Self-promotion is also a required skill in this environment. To succeed, one should be marketing oneself and garnering as much social media attention as possible (measured by Altmetric Attention scores and other indices). It’s obvious where this road can lead in terms of science quality and the social dynamics of vying for attention.

In addition, subordinated groups in science are not as visible to the science press as are the dominant groups, and they are not perceived as the faces of science thought leadership. At times, social attention for scholars of color and for women may result in negative attention and/or retribution. see the recent case of Pulitzer Prize–winner Nikole Hannah-Jones, author of the New York Times’ 1619 Project, and the associated UNC tenure controversy.

The established measures of success select for highly competitive rather than collaborative environments. A STEM workforce lacking diversity. A narrow demographic at the top.

A style of mentoring that elevates the success of mentors more than that of mentees. And potentially harmful environments for groups underrepresented in science. For example, a recent report on sexual harassment in STEM issued by the National Academy of Sciences reports that academic science is second only to the military in rates of gender harassment, taking an astonishing and corrosive toll on women who enter STEM fields.

Minority scientists, who are too often unrepresented in scientific departments, are immersed in unwelcoming environments and historically not given credit for their research contributions. Given this state of affairs, the failure to “move the needle” on diversity, equity and inclusion in STEM seems not only understandable but inevitable. Even if successful in their fields, these dynamics can present a gauntlet of stressful hazards to the personal well-being of scientists.

The toll is also seen in the harm done to institutional reputations when the behavior of some scholars becomes public. So, why should we all care about this?. Isn’t science progressing faster all the time?.

Isn’t the rate of research publications steadily increasing?. Don’t many foreign scientists come to the U.S. To work in our first-class science system?.

Well, yes, all true—but creating systemic culture change in STEM in order to diversify the STEM workforce matters critically for the future advancement of science and the translation of its benefits to society. True diversity, equity and inclusion within the scientific community will have a major positive impact for addressing the increasingly complex issues that lie at the heart of the science-society-policy intersection. It matters significantly – arguably more than any other issue – for the future of science.

It matters because scientific conclusions are shaped by the kinds of questions asked, by who conducts research, and by who asks scientific questions (e.g., do health trials include all demographic sectors of society?. ). It matters because research demonstrates that better science outcomes, enhanced innovation, and increased creativity result from broader perspectives and diverse participants (e.g., are diverse viewpoints at the innovation tables?.

). It matters because research priorities that determine who benefits from science and technological advances are set differently by different identities in science (e.g., are technological advances considering impacts on all communities?. ).

It matters because the vital link between scientific outcomes and evidence-based public policy relies on public trust in science—and public trust in science in turn relies on full participation, engagement and representativeness in science. And finally, it matters because the scientific enterprise in the U.S. Is funded largely by the public and should therefore include and benefit the entire public.

Our science system is supported by societal investments, the so-called “Science Bargain” or “Science-Society Contract.” Many in science are unaware of a 1945 report called Science. The Endless Frontier, but that report was a landmark policy document for government (public) support of science in this nation. The report was published at the end of World War II by Vannevar Bush, director of the federal Office of Scientific Research and Development at the time.

Bush argued that government spending on university-based and research institution–based science during the war effort should be continued in our postwar society but redirected to the nation’s scientists who were pursuing basic research at our top universities. Thus, research universities and the federal government (and thereby the U.S. Public) entered into an implicit partnership, with the shared goal of stimulating knowledge generation in the service of society.

It seems obvious that, because the public underwrites the scientific effort in the U.S., the entire public deserves to fully participate in the system and to fully benefit from its advances. But that part of the vision remains unrealized at this moment in time. And, if none of those arguments (societally relevant science, more innovative science, more representative science, enhanced public trust in science, financially responsible science) are persuasive, then transforming our science system towards a more just, equitable and inclusive enterprise is still imperative—because it is the morally right thing to do.

In the current social context of renewed attention to addressing societal inequities and injustices across many of our American institutions, we cannot leave a science reckoning out of the mix. Science, too, is a social justice issue. A healthy debate regarding the historical inequities of the science system is already underway.

Who gets to participate in science?. Who benefits from it?. Who is sometimes harmed by it?.

Who sets the important research priorities?. When viewed through a social justice lens, the deep misalignment between societal demographics and practicing scientists today is clearly even more unsustainable. The goal, then, is to build a STEM culture of inclusivity and a more representative science that becomes normative through a coordinated, systemic transformation.

We have a unique opportunity to transform the current science paradigm given the social and political times we live in and given that the system is already recently disrupted. To succeed, long-entrenched obstacles to this vision will need to be dismantled. the aforementioned culture of science is one such obstacle.

But there is much more. Inequity in educational opportunity. Myths of meritocracy.

Oversimplified metrics for success. Entrenched legacy attitudes about excellence, competition and the faces of leadership. Career advancement and tenure criteria that do not necessarily align with the values of diverse stakeholders.

Unwelcoming or hostile work environments in classroom, laboratory and fieldwork. And more. In a sense, reforming our science system is both simple and complicated.

Simple in the sense that we just need the political will to transform. Complicated in the sense that we are seeking to transform a complex and highly interconnected system with reinforcing feedback dynamics yet many disconnected components. These components include STEM educational systems, higher education, academic institutions, scientific disciplines and professional societies, individual scientists, science policies, the science publishing industry, research funding agencies, and more.

All these components must coordinate and align for significant systemic change to occur. For example, increasing diversity of the STEM pipeline and those at early career stages will not ultimately be successful if the culture of academic institutions does not change to accommodate the lives of diverse participants or if bias keeps them marginalized or drives them out of the system. Because advancing equity, diversity and inclusion in the scientific enterprise is therefore a systems-based challenge, it will require a more coordinated and centralized effort that includes all the embedded components working together towards common goals.

Although complex and challenging, such an undertaking will be more than worth the effort. With enormous challenges and possibilities in front of us, science needs all hands on deck. Let’s create a science system that is by all and for all, adjust the course of the astonishing human history of science towards a more just and inclusive enterprise, and fulfill a more complete vision of the science-society bargain.

This is an opinion and analysis article. The views expressed by the author or authors are not necessarily those of Scientific American. Any opinion, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or United States government, the AAAS, or any of the authors’ home institutions.Simple mathematical concepts such as counting appear to be firmly anchored in the natural process of thinking.

Studies have shown that even very young children and animals possess such skills to a certain extent. This is hardly surprising because counting is extremely useful in terms of evolution. For example, it is required for even very simple forms of trading.

And counting helps in estimating the size of a hostile group and, accordingly, whether it is better to attack or retreat.Over the past millennia, humans have developed a remarkable notion of counting. Originally applied to a handful of objects, it was easily extended to vastly different orders of magnitude. Soon a mathematical framework emerged that could be used to describe huge quantities, such as the distance between galaxies or the number of elementary particles in the universe, as well as barely conceivable distances in the microcosm, between atoms or quarks.We can even work with numbers that go beyond anything currently known to be relevant in describing the universe.

For example, the number 1010100 (one followed by 10100 zeros, with 10100 representing one followed by 100 zeros) can be written down and used in all kinds of calculations. Writing this number in ordinary decimal notation, however, would require more elementary particles than are probably contained in the universe, even employing just one particle per digit. Physicists estimate that our cosmos contains fewer than 10100 particles.

Yet even such unimaginably large numbers are vanishingly small, compared with infinite sets, which have played an important role in mathematics for more than 100 years. Simply counting objects gives rise to the set of natural numbers, ℕ = {0, 1, 2, 3, …}, which many of us encounter in school. Yet even this seemingly simple concept poses a challenge.

There is no largest natural number. If you keep counting, you will always be able to find a larger number. Can there actually be such a thing as an infinite set?.

In the 19th century, this question was very controversial. In philosophy, this may still be the case. But in modern mathematics, the existence of infinite sets is simply assumed to be true—postulated as an axiom that does not require proof.Set theory is about more than describing sets.

Just as, in arithmetic, you learn to apply arithmetical operations to numbers—for example, addition or multiplication—you can also define set-theoretical operations that generate new sets from given ones. You can take unions—{1, 2} and {2, 3, 4} becomes {1, 2, 3, 4}—or intersections—{1, 2} and {2, 3, 4} becomes {2}. More excitingly, you can form power sets—the family of all subsets of a set.Comparing Set SizesThe power set P(X) of a set X can be easily calculated for small X.

For instance, {1, 2} gives you P({1,2}) = {{}, {1}, {2}, {1, 2}}. But P(X) grows rapidly for larger X. For example, every 10-element set has 210 = 1,024 subsets.

If you really want to challenge your imagination, try forming the power set of an infinite set. For example, the power set of the natural numbers, P(ℕ), contains the empty set, ℕ itself, the set of all even numbers, the prime numbers, the set of all numbers with the sum of digits totaling 2021, {12, 17}, and much, much more. As it turns out, the number of elements of this power set exceeds the number of elements in the set of natural numbers.To understand what that means, you first have to understand how the size of sets is defined.

For the finite case, you can count the respective elements. For instance, {1, 2, 3} and {Cantor, Gödel, Cohen} are of the same size. If you wish to compare sets with numerous (but finitely many) elements, there are two well-established methods.

One possibility is to count the objects contained in each set and compare the numbers. Sometimes, however, it is easier to match the elements of one set to another. Then two sets are of the same size if and only if each element of one set can be uniquely paired with an element of the other set (in our example.

1 → Cantor, 2 →Gödel, 3 →Cohen).This pairing method also works for infinite sets. Here, instead of first counting and then deriving concepts such as “greater than” or “equal to,” you follow a reverse strategy. You start with defining what it means that two sets, A and B, are of the same size—namely, there is a mapping that pairs each element of A with exactly one element of B (so that no element of B is left over).

Such a mapping is called bijection.Similarly, A is defined to be less than or equal to B if there is a mapping from A to B that uses each element of B once at most.After we have these notions, the size of sets is denoted by cardinal numbers, or cardinals. For finite sets, these are the usual natural numbers. But for infinite sets, they are abstract quantities that just capture the notion of “size.” For example, “countable” is the cardinal number of the natural numbers (and therefore of every set that has the same size as the natural numbers).

It turns out that there are different cardinals. That is, there are infinite sets A and B with no bijection between them.At first sight, this definition of size seems to lead to contradictions, which were elaborated by the Bohemian mathematician Bernard Bolzano in Paradoxes of the Infinite, published posthumously in 1851. For example, Euclid’s “The whole is greater than the part” appears self-evident.

That means if a set A is a proper subset of B (that is, every element of A is in B, but B contains additional elements), then A must be smaller than B. This assertion is not true for infinite sets, however!. This curious property is one reason some scholars rejected the concept of infinite sets more than 100 years ago.For example, the set of even numbers E = {0, 2, 4, 6, …} is a proper subset of the natural numbers ℕ = {0, 1, 2, …}.

Intuitively, you might think that the set E is half the size of ℕ. But in fact, based on our definition, the sets have the same size because each number n in E can be assigned to exactly one number in ℕ (0 →0, 2 →1, 4 →2, …, n →n/2, …).Consequently, the concept of “size” for sets could be dismissed as nonsensical. Alternatively, it could be termed something else.

Cardinality, for example. For the sake of simplicity, we will stick to the conventional terminology, even though it has unexpected consequences at infinity.In the late 1800s, German logician Georg Cantor, founder of modern set theory, discovered that not all infinite sets are equal. According to his proof, the power set P(X) of a (finite or infinite) set X is always larger than X itself.

Among other things, it follows that there is no largest infinity and thus no “set of all sets.” An Unresolved Hypothesis There is, however, something akin to a smallest infinity. All infinite sets are greater than or equal to the natural numbers. Sets X that have the same size as ℕ (with a bijection between ℕ and X) are called countable.

Their cardinality is denoted ℵ0, or aleph null. For every infinite cardinal ℵa, there is a next larger cardinal number ℵa+1. Thus, the smallest infinite cardinal ℵ0 is followed by ℵ1, then ℵ2 and so on.

The set ℝ of real numbers (also called the real line) is as large as the power set of ℕ, and this cardinality is denoted 2ℵ0, or “continuum.”In the 1870s, Cantor ruminated over whether the size of ℝ was the smallest possible cardinal above ℵ0—in other words, whether ℵ1 = 2ℵ0. Previously, every infinite subset of ℝ that had been studied had turned out to be either as large as ℕ or ℝ itself. This led Cantor to what is known as the continuum hypothesis (CH).

The assertion that the size of ℝ is the smallest possible uncountable cardinal. For decades, CH kept mathematicians busy, but a proof eluded them. Later, it became clear their efforts had been doomed from the start.Set theory is extremely powerful.

It can describe virtually all mathematical concepts. But it also has limitations. The field is based on the axiomatic system formulated more than 100 years ago by German logician Ernst Zermelo and elaborated by his German-Israeli colleague Abraham Fraenkel.

Called ZFC, or Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (C stands for “axiom of choice”), the system is a collection of basic assumptions sufficient to carry out almost all of mathematics. Very few problems require additional assumptions. But in 1931 Austrian mathematician Kurt Gödel recognized that the system has a fundamental defect.

It is incomplete. That is, it is possible to formulate mathematical statements that can neither be refuted nor proved using ZFC. Among other things, it is impossible for a system to prove its own consistency.The most famous example of undecidability in set theory is CH.

In a paper published in 1938, Gödel proved that CH cannot be disproved within ZFC. Neither can it be proved, as Paul Cohen showed 25 years later. It is thus impossible to solve CH using the usual axioms of set theory.

Consequently, it remains unclear whether sets exist that are both larger than the natural numbers and smaller than the real numbers.Cardinality is not the only notion to describe the size of a set. For example, from the point of view of geometry, subsets of the real line ℝ, the two-dimensional plane (sometimes called the x-y plane) or the three-dimensional space can be assigned length, area or volume. A set of points in the plane forming a rectangle with side lengths a and b has an area of a ∙b.

Calculating the area of more complicated subsets of the plane sometimes requires other tools, such as the integral calculus taught in school. This method does not suffice for certain complex sets. But many can still be quantified using the Lebesgue measure, a function that assigns length, area or volume to extremely complicated objects.

Even so, it is possible to define subsets of ℝ, or the plane, that are so frayed that they cannot be measured at all.In two-dimensional space, a line (such as the circumference of a circle, a finite segment or a straight line) is always measurable, and its area is zero. It is therefore called a null set. Null sets can also be defined in one dimension.

On the real line, the set with two elements—for example {3, 5}—has a measure zero, whereas an interval such as [3, 5]—that is, the real numbers between three and five—has a measure two. Negligible Sets The concept of a null set is extremely useful in mathematics. Often, a theorem is not true for all real numbers but can be proved for all real numbers outside of a null set.

This is usually good enough for most applications. Yet null sets may seem quite large. For example, the rational numbers within the real line are a null set even though there are infinitely many of them.

This is because any countable—or finite—set is a null set. The converse is not true. A subset of the x-y plane with a large cardinality need be neither measurable nor of large measure.

For example, the entire plane with its 2ℵ0 elements has an infinite measure. But the x axis with the same cardinality has a two-dimensional measure (or “area”) zero and thus is a null set of the plane. Such “negligible” sets led to fundamental questions about the size of 10 infinite cardinals, which remained unanswered for a long time.

For example, mathematicians wished to know the minimum size a set must have for it not to be a null set. The family of all null sets is denoted by 𝒩, and the smallest cardinality of a non-null set is denoted by non(𝒩). It follows that ℵ0 <.

Non(𝒩) ≤ 2ℵ0, because any set of size ℵ0 is a null set, and the whole plane has size 2ℵ0 and is not a null set. Thus, ℵ1≤ non(𝒩) ≤ 2ℵ0, because ℵ1 is the smallest uncountable cardinal. If we assume CH, then non(𝒩) = 2ℵ0, because, in that case, ℵ1 = 2ℵ0.

We can define another cardinal number, add(𝒩), to answer the question, What is the minimal number of null sets whose union is a non-null set?. This number is less than or equal to non(𝒩). If A is a non-null set containing non(𝒩) many elements, the union of all the non(𝒩) many one-element subsets of A is the non-null set A.

But a smaller number of null sets (though they would not be one-element sets) could also satisfy the requirements. Therefore, add(𝒩) ≤ non(𝒩) holds. The cardinal cov(𝒩) is the smallest number of null sets whose union yields the whole plane.

It is also easy to see that add(𝒩) is smaller than or equal to cov(𝒩) because, as already mentioned, the plane is a non-null set. We can also consider cof(𝒩), the smallest possible size for a basis X of 𝒩. That is, a set X of null sets that contains a superset B of every null set A.

(That means A is a subset of B.) These infinite cardinals—add(𝒩), cov(𝒩), non(𝒩) and cof(𝒩)—are important characteristics of the family of null sets. For each of these four cardinal characteristics, an analogous characteristic can be defined using a different concept of small, or negligible, sets. This other notion of smallness is “meager.” A meager set is a set contained in the countable union of nowhere dense sets, such as the circumference of a circle in the plane, or finitely or countably many such circumferences.

In one dimension, the normal numbers form a meager set on the real line, while the remaining reals, the non-normal numbers, constitute a null set. Accordingly, the corresponding cardinal characteristics can be defined for the family of meager sets. Add(ℳ), non(ℳ), cov(ℳ) and cof(ℳ).

Under CH, all characteristics are the same, namely ℵ1, for both null and meager sets. On the other hand, using the method of “forcing,” developed by Cohen, mathematicians Kenneth Kunen and Arnold Miller were able to show in 1981 that it is impossible to prove the statement add(𝒩) = add(ℳ) within ZFC. In other words, the numbers of null and meager sets that must be combined to produce a non-negligible set are not provably equal.

Forcing is a method to construct mathematical universes. A mathematical universe is a model that satisfies the ZFC axioms. To show that a statement X is not refutable in ZFC, it is enough to find a universe in which both ZFC and X are valid.

Similarly, to show that X is not provable from ZFC, it is enough to find a universe where ZFC holds but X fails. Mathematical Universes with Surprising Properties Kunen and Miller used this method to construct a mathematical universe that satisfies add(𝒩) <. Add(ℳ).

In this model, more meager than null sets are required to form a non-negligible set. Accordingly, it is impossible to prove add(𝒩) add(ℳ) from ZFC.In contrast, Tomek Bartoszyński discovered three years later that the converse inequality add(𝒩) ≤ add(ℳ) can be proved using ZFC. This points to an asymmetry between the two notions of smallness.

Let us note that this asymmetry is not visible if we assume CH because CH implies ℵ1 = add(𝒩) = add(ℳ). To summarize. Add(𝒩) ≤ add(ℳ) is provable, but neither add(𝒩) = add(ℳ) nor add(𝒩) <.

Add(ℳ) is provable. This is the same effect as with CH. It is trivial to prove that ℵ1 ≤ 2ℵ0, but neither ℵ1 <.

2ℵ0 nor ℵ1 = 2ℵ0 is provable. In addition to the cardinal numbers defined so far, there are two important cardinal characteristics—𝔟 and 𝔡—that refer to dominating functions of real numbers. For two continuous functions (of which there are 2ℵ0 many) f and g, f is said to be dominated by g if the inequality f(x) <.

G(x) holds for all sufficiently large x. For example, a quadratic function such as g(x) = x2 always dominates a linear function, say f(x) = 100x + 30.The cardinal number 𝔡 is defined as the smallest possible size of a set of continuous functions sufficient to dominate every possible continuous function.A variant of this definition gives the cardinal number 𝔟, namely the smallest size of a family B with the property that there is no continuous function that dominates all functions of B. It can be shown that ℵ1 ≤ 𝔟 ≤ 𝔡 ≤ 2ℵ0 holds.Several additional inequalities have been shown to hold between the 12 infinite cardinals we just defined.

All these inequalities are summarized in Cichoń’s diagram, introduced by British mathematician David Fremlin in 1984 and named after his Polish colleague Jacek Cichoń. For typographical reasons, the less-or-equal signs are replaced by arrows. Credit.

Jakob Kellner There are two additional relations. Add(ℳ) is the smaller one of 𝔟 and cov(ℳ). Likewise, cof(ℳ) is the larger of 𝔡 and non(ℳ).

These two “dependent” cardinals are marked with a frame in the Cichoń diagram. The diagram thus comprises 12 uncountable cardinalities of which no more than 10 can be simultaneously different. How Different Can Infinities Be?.

If CH holds, however, ℵ1 (the smallest number in the diagram) is equal to 2ℵ0 (the largest number in the diagram), and thus all entries are equal. If, on the other hand, we assume CH to be false, then they could be quite different.For several decades, mathematicians tried to show that none of the less-or-equal relations in Cichoń’s diagram can be strengthened to equalities. To do that, they constructed many different universes in which they assigned the two smallest uncountable cardinals, ℵ1 and ℵ2, to the entries of the diagram in various ways.

For example, they created a universe for which ℵ1 = add(𝒩) = cov(𝒩) and ℵ2 = non(ℳ) = cof(ℳ).This work enabled researchers in the 1980s to confirm that for all pairs of cardinals, only the relationships indicated in the diagram can be proved in ZFC. More precisely, for every labeling of the (independent) Cichoń diagram entries with the values ℵ1 and ℵ2 that honors the inequalities of the diagram, there is a universe that realizes the given labeling.So we have known for nearly four decades that all assignments of ℵ1 and ℵ2 to the diagram are possible. But what can we say for more than two values?.

Could, for example, all the independent entries be simultaneously different?. Some cases with three characteristics have been known for 50 years, and in the 2010s, more universes were discovered (or constructed) in which up to seven different cardinals appeared in the Cichoń diagram.In a 2019 paper we constructed with Israeli mathematician Saharon Shelah of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, a universe in which the maximum possible number of different infinite values—10, that is—appears in Cichoń’s diagram. In doing so, however, we used a stronger system of axioms than ZFC, one that assumes the existence of “large cardinals,” infinities whose existence is not provable in ZFC alone.While we were very pleased with this result, we were not entirely satisfied.

We worked for two more years to find a solution using only the ZFC axioms. Together with Shelah and Colombian mathematician Diego Mejía of Shizuoka University in Japan, we finally succeeded in proving the result without these additional assumptions.We have thus shown that the 10 characteristics of the real numbers can all be different. Let us note that we did not show that there can be at least, at most or precisely 10 infinite cardinals between ℵ1 and the continuum.

This was already proved by Robert Solovay in 1963. In fact, the size of the set of real numbers can vary greatly. There could be eight, 27 or infinitely many cardinal numbers between ℵ1 and 2ℵ0—even uncountably many.

Rather our result proves that there are mathematical universes in which the 10 specific cardinal numbers between ℵ1 and 2ℵ0 turn out to be different. This is not the end of the story. As is usual for mathematics, many questions remain open, and new ones arise.

For example, in addition to the cardinal numbers described here, many other infinite cardinalities lying between ℵ1 and the continuum have been discovered since the 1940s. Their precise relationships to one another are unknown. To distinguish some of these characteristics in addition to those in Cichoń’s diagram is one of the upcoming challenges.

Another one is to show that other orderings of 10 different values are possible. Unlike in the case for the two values ℵ1 and ℵ2, where we know that all possible orders are consistent, in the case of all 10 values, we could only show the consistency of two different orderings. So, who knows, there may still be hitherto undiscovered equalities—involving more than two characteristics—hidden in the diagram.This article originally appeared in Spektrum der Wissenschaft and was reproduced with permission..

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