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The erectile dysfunction levitra has brought to public attention a variety of questions long debated in medical levitra online ethics, but now given both added urgency and wider publicity. Among these is triage, with its origins in deciding which individual lives are to be saved on a battlefield, but now also concerned with the allocation of scarce resources more generally. On the historical battlefield, decisions about whom to treat first – neither those who would survive without treatment, nor those who would not survive even with treatment, but those who needed treatment to survive – was facilitated by military discipline and the limited effectiveness of treatments available. In the allocation of scarce resources today, by contrast, such decisions are subject to levitra online intense public and political scrutiny, and the range of effective treatments available has immeasurably diminished the proportion of ‘those who would not survive even with treatment’.

If triage decisions are to be made, they now need to be justified in the arena of public opinion by moral arguments which are also politically persuasive.A number of different aspects of what is required for this endeavour are examined in the first five contributions to this issue of the Journal. In ‘Should age matter in erectile dysfunction treatment triage?. A deliberative study’1, Kuylen and colleagues report on a deliberative study of public views in the UK, in which participants ‘generally accepted the need for triage but strongly rejected ’fair innings’ and ’life projects’ principles as justifications for age-based allocation,…preferring to maximise the number levitra online of lives rather than life years saved’. And concerned that in any resolution ‘utilitarian considerations of efficiency should be tempered with a concern for equality and vulnerability’.A similar concern to temper utilitarian considerations, in this case with an Aristotelian view of the common good as ‘the good life for each and every member of the community’ is expressed in ‘Public health decisions in the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra require more than ‘follow the science’’ by de Campos-Rudinsky and Undurraga.2 Public health decisions, they argue, ‘always involve layers of complexity, coupled with uncertainty’.

€˜the implication of the incommensurability of basic human goods… is that when tensions between them arise (such as happened during this levitra, when preservation of health required the adaptation of how we experience work, education, leisure, family and friendships), the solution cannot be readily determined by a simple balancing test’. €˜Good decision-making in public health policy’ they conclude levitra online. €˜does depend on the availability of reliable data and rigorous analyses, but depends above all on sound ethical reasoning that ascribes value and normative judgement to empirical facts.’Triage decisions actually made during the levitra are the subject of ‘National health system cuts and triage decisions during the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra in Italy and Spain. Ethical implications’ by Faggioni and colleagues.3 Analysing ‘the most important documents establishing the criteria for the treatment and exclusion of erectile dysfunction treatment patients, especially in regard to the giving of respiratory support, in Italy and Spain’, they discover ‘a tension that stems from limited healthcare resources which are insufficient to save lives that, under normal conditions, could have been saved, or at least could have received the best possible treatment’.

In response, they ‘set forth a series of levitra online concrete ethical proposals with which to face the successive waves of erectile dysfunction treatment , as well as other future levitras’. These include the duty of health authorities ‘to plan for foreseeable ethical challenges during a health emergency’, and the duty of ‘public organisms at the national level, such as national committees on ethics…to prepare the protocols for care and treatment that would help physicians and healthcare workers to manage the predictable uncertainty and distress in healthcare emergencies’.Turning to a currently pressing international aspect of resource allocation, Jecker and colleagues, in ‘treatment ethics. An ethical framework for global distribution of erectile dysfunction treatments’4 marshal an impressive amount of empirical research and ethical theory to argue that ‘in order to accelerate development and fair, efficient treatment allocation…treatments should be distributed globally, with priority to frontline and essential workers worldwide’. €˜ethical values to guide treatment distribution’, they conclude, should ‘highlight values of helping the neediest, reducing health disparities, saving lives and keeping society functioning’.A further important resource often levitra online found to be all too scarce during the levitra was personal protective equipment (PPE).

In ‘Balancing health worker well-being and duty to care. An ethical approach to staff safety in erectile dysfunction treatment and beyond’5, McDougall and colleagues ‘articulate some of the specific ethical challenges around PPE currently being faced by front-line clinicians, and develop an approach to staff safety that involves balancing duty to care and personal well-being’. This includes ‘a five-step structured…decision-making framework that facilitates ‘ethical reflection and/or decision-making that is systematic, specific and transparent’ and ‘guides the decision maker to characterise the degree of levitra online risk to staff, articulate feasible options for staff protection in that specific setting and identify the option that ensures any decrease in patient care is proportionate to the increase in staff well-being’.Because of the levitra and the fear of health services being overwhelmed by it, research on and treatment of other conditions, no less serious for the individual patient, have lacked resources which urgently require to be restored. Issues in medical ethics not directly related to erectile dysfunction treatment equally call for renewed attention, not least because analysis of ethical questions raised by the levitra largely relies on intellectual tools forged in earlier debates on other subjects.

Three papers in this issue of the Journal return to subjects often discussed in medical ethics, but with fresh thinking on these, while a fourth examines a question which for many may be genuinely new.The role and functioning of research ethics committees (RECs) was one of the earliest concerns of twentieth century medical ethics and as these committees grew both in number and in the complexity of their deliberations, they have continued to receive ethical attention. In ‘Process levitra online of risk assessment by research ethics committees. Foundations, shortcomings and open questions’6 Rudra observes that ‘there is currently no uniform and solid theoretical approach to risk assessment by RECs’ and in response develops a detailed ‘concept of aggregate risk definition’ designed to ‘strengthen the coherence of REC decisions and therefore the trust between researchers and the institution of the REC as such’.‘Imperfect by design. The problematic ethics of surgical training’7 by Das, again addresses a familiar but difficult ethical question.

€˜How do we ethically validate the current training model for surgeons, in which trainees are often given operative duties that could likely be better handled by levitra online a staff physician?. €™ Admitting that the ‘deontological responsibilities of individual surgeons are incommensurable with the fundamentally utilitarian nature of the medical system’ the author argues that surgeons ‘as individuals must be willing to accept that they are knowingly foregoing optimal patient care on a small scale, and navigate the trade-offs which exist at the interface of two (possibly irreconcilable) philosophical system’.One of the most familiar of all subjects in medical ethics, that of consent, is discussed by Giordano and colleagues in ‘Gender dysphoria in adolescents. Can adolescents or parents give valid consent to puberty blockers?. €™8 The occasion for this discussion is a recent English judgement suggesting ‘that levitra online adolescents cannot give valid consent to treatment that temporarily suspends puberty’ - a claim which appears to contradict what hitherto was generally considered settled law on adolescent consent to medical treatment.

The authors, while not commenting on the specific case in question, carefully examine ‘four reasons why consent may be deemed invalid’ in cases of this kind. €˜the decision is too complex, the decision-makers are too emotionally involved, the decision-makers are on a ‘conveyor belt and ’the possibility of detransitioning’. They argue that ‘none of these stand up to scrutiny’ and conclude that ‘accepting these claims at face value could have serious negative implications, not just for gender diverse youth, but for many other minors and families and in a much broader range of levitra online healthcare settings.’While much has been written on whether patients can trust their doctors, whether doctors can trust their computers has been until recently a less familiar question in medical ethics. This month’s Feature Article, ‘Who is afraid of black box algorithms?.

On the epistemological and ethical basis of trust in medical AI’9 by Durán and Jongsma, together with four critical Commentaries, addresses this question with specific reference to the use in medicine of ‘black box’ algorithms, that is, algorithms whose ‘computational processes…do not follow well understood rules’ and are ‘methodologically opaque to humans’. In order to trust such algorithms, the authors argue, doctors do not necessarily need to understand their levitra online computational processes, provided their reliability is supported by ‘computational reliabilism’, evidence, that is, that the algorithm is ‘a reliable process…that yields, most of the time, trustworthy results’. On the other hand, even if the results are trustworthy, the authors warn, that is not sufficient to justify doctors in acting on them. €˜clinical findings and evidence need to be interpreted and contextualised, regardless of the methods used for analysis (ie, opaque or not), in order to determine how these should be acted on in clinical practice…even if recommendations provided by the medical AI system are trusted because the algorithm itself is reliable, these should not be followed blindly without further assessment.

Instead, we must keep humans in the loop of decision making by algorithms.’IntroductionThe levitra online first wave of the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra put a large burden on many healthcare systems. Fears arose that demand for resources would exceed supply, necessitating triage in critical care, for example, when allocating intensive care unit (ICU) beds. The role of age in resource allocation was an especially salient issue given the proclivity of erectile dysfunction to cause excess mortality in older groups. Several erectile dysfunction treatment triage guidelines included age as an explicit factor,1–4 and practices of both triage and ‘anticipatory triage’ likely limited access to hospital care for elderly patients, especially those in care homes.5–8 This raised ethical and societal questions about the role of levitra online age in triage decision making.9–11In medical ethics literature, different principles for resource allocation exist.

Following a scoping review, we identified four that have explicit implications for the use of age as a deciding factor in triage:(1) the ‘fair innings’ principle, (2) the ‘life projects’ principle, (3) the ‘egalitarian principle’ and (4) the ‘maximise life years’ principle. (1) The ‘fair innings’ principle prioritises younger over older people so that younger people also get the chance to reach later life stages.12 (2) The ‘life projects’ principle prioritises young to middle-aged people so that everyone gets the chance to complete their life projects (eg, raising children and making a career).13 (3) The egalitarian principle calls for equal treatment of all and does not permit discrimination on the basis of age, meaning we must take a ‘lottery’ or ‘first come, first served’ approach.14 15 (4) Finally, the ‘maximise life years’ principle, a utilitarian approach, permits indirect discrimination on the basis of age insofar as this maximises the amount of life years saved.16These principles have conflicting implications. Our study aimed to explore general public levitra online views on the role of age in triage decision making during the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra. Specifically, we wanted to understand attitudes to the aforementioned four allocation principles, as well as on related factors such as quality of life and frailty.

We also sought to understand, and elicit, participants’ considered recommendations on triage, with a view to developing ethical guidelines that are sensitive to public thinking.MethodsWe held deliberative workshops with members of the general public following the general method of deliberative democracy,17–19 in collaboration with UK market research company Ipsos MORI, which has expertise in deliberative workshops. We requested levitra online them to recruit 25 participants from South East London, so as to inform clinical ethics forums in hospitals associated with King’s College London. Participants were guided through a deliberative process so they could arrive at an informed and considered opinion on topics that may have been new or unfamiliar to them. Four workshops, each lasting 2 hours, took place during 3 weeks across August and September 2020, in a particular social window between the first and second wave of erectile dysfunction treatment.

This was levitra online an opportunity for participants to discuss the complex ethical questions on triage in a context in which its importance was pertinent. Three participants dropped out before the first session for personal reasons. Nineteen participants took part in all four sessions. The three remaining participants each took part in three out of four sessions.Deliberative democracy offers levitra online medical ethics a promising way to consult public preferences while ensuring these are adequately informed and considered.

The sessions met the three standards for deliberation set out by Blacksher et al.20 First, sessions included informative presentations to provide ‘balanced, factual information that improves participant’s knowledge of the issue’. Second, we ensured ‘the inclusion of diverse perspectives’ through strategic sampling. Participants reflected the demographics of the levitra online demographically diverse boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark (see table 1 for sample characteristics). We made particular effort to include participants over 60 years.

Third, participants were given ‘the opportunity to reflect on and discuss freely a wide spectrum of viewpoints and to challenge and test competing moral claims’. The sessions included plenary discussions and discussions in smaller breakout groups, which were facilitated by experienced qualitative research staff from Ipsos levitra online MORI. Facilitation was non-directive and neutral with respect to content but active in promotion of an engaged, inclusive process among participants.View this table:Table 1 Participant demographicsThe research team (GO, MNIK, ARK) observed sessions and held discussion with the facilitators between workshops. The sessions were transcribed by professional note takers, and transcriptions were thematically analysed in two stages.

First, general themes were identified in the raw levitra online data by Ipsos MORI and the research team and summarised in the report. In a second step, the research team analysed the raw data again with particular focus on the ethical reasoning underlying discussions.Ahead of the study, we worked with Ipsos MORI to develop a detailed but accessible discussion guide for the workshops and survey questions to be answered by participants after each session. We also developed information materials to present to participants. A presentation on how resource allocation and treatment escalation works in England’s National Health Service, an overview of relevant data on how erectile dysfunction treatment affects the elderly, video presentations spelling out the four allocation principles, materials explaining the concepts of frailty and quality of life levitra online and case vignettes showing how triage dilemmas may arise.

These materials and further details of the methods are reported elsewhere.21During session 1, the information materials were presented to participants, and initial reactions to the four principles were briefly explored in breakout groups. During session 2, case study examples were discussed in breakout groups to examine the practical implications of the respective principles. During session 3, participants were introduced to the notions of frailty and quality of life levitra online and explored these in breakout groups through one further hypothetical triage dilemma. Participants also deliberated further on the four principles and were asked to spell out their concerns about them.

During session 4, participants were asked to formulate final recommendations and caveats in breakout groups. They also discussed how recommendations should be implemented and communicated to the public.Given levitra safety levitra online measures, the workshops were conducted online on Zoom. This was a relatively novel approach to deliberative democracy. Benefits of this approach were that participants felt more comfortable expressing opinions about sensitive subjects, carers or family members could more easily support older or vulnerable participants to contribute to the deliberations, and there was more time between sessions for reflection than with face-to-face sessions, which usually take place within 1 day.

Downsides were that some participants experienced minor technical difficulties.All participants gave informed consent before taking part.Findings‘Fair innings’ and ‘life projects’ principlesThe ‘fair innings’ and ‘life projects’ principle were levitra online strongly rejected from the outset and throughout the deliberative process. Participants found the ‘fair innings’ principle arbitrary and unnuanced, as well as unfair. They felt that age alone does not provide sufficient information about someone’s medical condition and that the lives of older people are important too. €˜We should get all equal treatment, young or old, we’re all the same’ levitra online.

Some participants also mentioned the contributions of the elderly to society, stating that ‘older people have just as much to give to society as younger people do’. The ‘life projects’ principle was equally firmly rejected, on the basis that it was normalising, favouring existing societal norms that not everyone meets. €˜It’s very levitra online discriminatory and not right. There are late developers.

There are people who bloom later or earlier in life’. It was also emphasised that retirement was a levitra online time in which, after a life of work, people are finally free to start and pursue their life projects. €˜When you get older, that’s when you want to start projects. […] There are a lot of people almost having second lives doing all the things they couldn’t do previously’.

Dismissing this period, therefore, seemed counterintuitive.Egalitarian levitra online principleThe egalitarian principle was accepted, though a number of concerns about it were raised throughout the study. Initially, this principle was received as the most straightforward and fairest principle, but as discussion progressed, worries emerged about its practical application. First of all, participants rejected a randomised ‘lottery’ approach, preferring a ‘first come, first served’ version of this principle. €˜lottery doesn’t feel like a good system levitra online when it’s people lives.

It’s inappropriate’. But even the latter approach raised concerns. Participants were mostly worried about hidden inequalities, stating this approach would not redress, and even risk reinforcing, existing inequalities (eg, people with better access to the hospital may get there sooner) levitra online. One participant said that ‘first come, first served isn’t egalitarian and you have the socio-economic challenges because, if you are in a particular class, you’re in a better position to be able to take care of yourself and get to the doctors first’.

There were further concerns that a ‘first come, first served’ approach would waste valuable resources, when patients with a worse prognosis happen to arrive earlier. Finally, some participants felt uneasy that, levitra online on this approach, resources would not necessarily go to those who need them most. €˜On the face of it, it looks good, but I think means that those that come in later who are in greater need haven’t got access’. A few participants remained in favour of an egalitarian approach, though all accepted that, if a patient’s prognosis is extremely poor, they should not be escalated for treatment.

€˜if you were following the egalitarian principle but you have someone in front of you who the evidence would suggest is highly unlikely to survive treatment and you’ve got someone who is highly likely to survive, as unfair as it may seem, it feels like it would be an important consideration […] I’m only thinking about extreme cases where you’ve got levitra online someone who is extremely frail and therefore extremely unlikely to survive’.‘Maximise life years’ principleWhen the ‘maximise life years’ principle was introduced, immediate concerns were raised about the accuracy of medical judgments about life expectancy. €˜Nobody knows how long anybody is going to live for. There are some assumptions, even if you’ve got two people in front of you, one who is 40 and one who is 60’. Furthermore, in discussing this principle, participants spontaneously distinguished survival chance from life expectancy in levitra online the deliberations and strongly favoured the former.

They supported maximising the number of lives saved, rather than the amount of life years saved. €˜There’s a logic in maximum number of lives you save irrespective of the number of life years they have’. The underlying reasoning seemed to be that every life is of equal value levitra online. A majority of participants agreed that ‘a life is a life’.It was thus widely felt that a patient’s immediate medical condition was a very important factor in triage, insofar as this informed their chances of survival.

In this context, participants recognised frailty as a key factor. Though it was not initially understood as a medical term, it was eventually accepted as a levitra online relevant prognostic variable for predicting survival chances.Some participants questioned the survival chance-based approach, though. For example, a small number of participants expressed concern about the disproportionate effects it could have on groups that may be more vulnerable to erectile dysfunction treatment. €˜By virtue of prioritising survival of the fittest, it will discriminate and people are uncomfortable with this because it means older people will be less likely to be escalated, people in wheelchairs, people in BAME communities’.

Another more widespread worry levitra online was that this approach failed to allocate resources in accordance with need. These concerns led some participants to formulate a new, vulnerability-based allocation principle, which is discussed further below.Quality of lifeThe notion of quality of life was initially treated with suspicion, seen as inviting unconscious bias and too subjective. €˜I don’t know if professionals can really confirm how somebody’s well-being is’. Throughout the study, it was increasingly accepted, though mostly as a secondary factor when patients’ medical conditions are highly similar, in which case those levitra online with a higher quality of life would be prioritised.

Caveats were that it should only be applied in extreme cases and that quality of life assessments should, where possible, involve ‘input of the person, their family, carers and that kind of stuff’ to avoid biased assessments.However, one participant said those with a lower quality of life should be prioritised, so that their quality of life may be improved. Some also noted that quality of life may be strongly influenced by socioeconomic factors, indicating a danger of exacerbating existing inequalities. €˜I do worry with quality of life, the more money you have, the better quality of life you tend to have […] your health is defined by your class and how much money you have’.VulnerabilityThroughout the study, concerns were expressed levitra online about vulnerability, especially in reaction to the utilitarian approach. In these discussions, participants struggled to formulate an additional allocation principle.

This had two aspects, though these were not always clearly differentiated. One aspect levitra online concerned vulnerable groups (eg, age, disability or ethnic groups) who may be disproportionately affected by the levitra itself or the social response to it (eg, unconscious bias). One participant said. €˜we know it affects the elderly at higher rates than the youth.

[…] It makes the most sense to prioritise the elderly levitra online over the young, just on the basis of the percentages of old people vs young people dying. Young people are more likely to survive’. There was, however, some disagreement over whether positive action for these groups should indeed be taken to mitigate the vulnerability or whether this was itself a form of discrimination.The other aspect concerned individuals in need (eg, those presenting to hospital as sicker) and whether a humane principle was to prioritise those in greatest medical need. €˜The more help somebody levitra online needs, the more they should get’.

Some suggested to prioritise those least likely to survive. €˜I think the most vulnerable should be prioritised. […] If you think you levitra online can save them, then prioritise them’. Reasons given for such an approach were that ‘the true measure of any society is how it treats its most vulnerable members’.

But, again, it was accepted that if treatment was unlikely to succeed, patients should not be escalated. €˜you give the resources to the people that most need it, in my opinion, up until the point where the giving of resources is next to useless, where it’s ascertained that they will die anyway’.Other participants rejected this need-based levitra online approach altogether, out of a concern for efficiency. €˜Does that mean, if those people are most likely to die, you’re directing your resources at people who are weaker?. So resources could be going to a group who stand the least chance of surviving?.

That doesn’t feel levitra online like a great use of resources’.ImplementationDuring the final workshop, participants were asked how their recommendations should be implemented. We found strong support for discretion (applying recommendations as guidance rather than a mandatory policy), and participants felt groups of doctors, not individuals, should make decisions as this could reduce burden and bias. Thus, guidelines should not be binding but instead guide expert deliberation, and this deliberation is ideally executed by teams rather than individuals, so that different perspectives can be considered.DiscussionIn summary, we observed a strong rejection of the two explicitly age-based principles. A tolerance for an egalitarian ‘first come, first served’ principle, though with levitra online doubts about sufficiency.

Wide support for a newly formulated approach based on survival chances, with some consideration of frailty and quality of life. Concerns about group vulnerability and individual need. And a preference for discretion and deliberation in triage decision making.These findings raise important questions regarding existing guidelines and expert recommendations, when and where they do levitra online not align with them. Fallucchi et al22 have observed similar public intuitions, which digress from US triage guidelines, but conclude that the public requires more education.

We found, however, that these public moral intuitions persist even after a robust process of reflection and deliberation. We think this warrants serious consideration of public preferences.A first preference deserving serious consideration is the stark rejection of direct levitra online discrimination on the basis of age, as well as the use of randomised ‘lottery’ approaches, both of which have been observed in similar studies.22 23A second focal point is the preference for survival chance over life expectancy, which also has been observed elsewhere.19 22 Savulescu et al24 have criticised the UK’s NICE guidelines on resource allocation during erectile dysfunction treatment25 for including considerations of survival chance but not life expectancy. The NICE guidelines reject the latter as it results in indirect discrimination on the basis of age. According to Savulescu et al, however, the guidelines already tolerate indirect discrimination since basing triage on survival chance will also disproportionally affect the elderly.

The authors thus levitra online assume both factors operate on the same logic. However, we suspect our participants may have highlighted an ethically relevant distinction between survival chance and life expectancy. In fact, there are at least two ways in which these factors may be different. First, considering levitra online life expectancy in triage seems closer to direct age-based discrimination.

While survival chance is closely linked to age specifically in the context of erectile dysfunction treatment, life expectancy has a closer (indeed almost conceptual) link to age. To be older simply is to be closer to death. A similar distinction between survival levitra online chance and life expectancy has been made by Mello et al,26 who argue that only the latter results in disability-based discrimination. Second, a live saved and a life year saved seem to produce a different kind of value.

A life saved is a categorical outcome, whereas a life year saved is a scalar outcome. This conceptual difference seems ethically relevant because most participants considered any life levitra online saved of inherent value, regardless of its predicted length. It is ‘about saving as many people as possible, even if they have a shorter life’. On this logic, saving more of a life does not produce additional value.A third finding deserving of consideration is the concern about vulnerability.

The core values of equality and efficiency, and the question of how to balance both, are central to discussions about resource allocation levitra online. During our study, however, a third relevant principle spontaneously emerged from the discussions. Vulnerability. Though this notion was not unpacked in much detail during the deliberations, it alludes to values of antidiscrimination and protection, in line with emerging debates in the levitra online literature.27 28How can these public intuitions be incorporated into triage decisions?.

Participants generally accepted the need for triage but did not arrive at a unified recommendation of one principle. Indeed, in the final survey, recommendations included a mixture of principles and factors. However, a levitra online concern for three core principles and values emerged. As mentioned, deliberation resulted in the formulation of three broad, but distinguishable, allocation principles.

An egalitarian ‘first come, first served’ principle, a utilitarian principle (but based mainly on survival chance and frailty) and a ‘vulnerability’ principle. The underlying core values of each of these principles could be described as levitra online equality, efficiency and vulnerability, respectively. In other words, a ‘triad’ of ethical values emerged. While these remain very hard to fully respect at once, they captured a considered, multifaceted consensus.

All three principles were embedded in caveats and raised their levitra online own set of concerns. Notably, for each principle, these caveats and concerns can be linked back to the two other values of the triad:The egalitarian ‘equality’ principle raised concerns about efficiency and vulnerability. If treatment was likely futile, it was agreed that patients should forgo it (efficiency concern). Participants worried strongly about hidden inequalities (vulnerability concern).The levitra online ‘efficiency’ principle raised concerns about equality and vulnerability.

Most agreed that if there was a ‘close call’ between patients, an egalitarian approach should be adopted instead (equality concern). Some worried about groups more vulnerable to erectile dysfunction treatment and about individuals with greater clinical need (vulnerability concerns).The ‘vulnerability’ principle raised concerns about equality and efficiency. Many participants resisted the notion of positive discrimination for vulnerable groups (equality concern) levitra online. Many also worried that scarce resources would be ‘wasted’ on vulnerable individuals as they may not survive or take up more time in ICU (efficiency concerns).We are hopeful, therefore, that this ‘triad’ of ethical principles may be a useful structure to guide ethical deliberation as societies negotiate the conflicting ethical demands of triage.This links to our finding that participants favoured discretion and group deliberation in triage decisions.

In light of this, the triad may offer a useful framework, as it does not prescribe one single principle but rather a balancing exercise among three core values, ideally performed by a team of deliberators. In sum, rather than inviting moral paralysis, we hope this triad could guide fruitful case discussion for doctors, reduce moral distress and give them more confidence that the triage decisions they arrive at have public acceptability.Strengths and limitationsStrengthsWe achieved a purposeful sample, there was a high level of participant engagement, participants showed they could think through complex ethical topics, a triad consensus emerged from a very diverse South-East London group, indicating a degree of robustness and there was the ecological validity of doing this study in the social window in between two erectile dysfunction treatment waves.LimitationsThe South-East London sample may not generalise to other areas, findings may not generalise to other triage contexts (eg, levitras effecting children) and some elements, for example, vulnerability, remained underexplored, indicating a need for further research.ConclusionTo ensure the legitimacy of triage guidelines, which affect the public, it is important to engage the public’s moral intuitions, levitra online as they do not always align with expert recommendations. Guiding the public through a process of deliberation ensures that public intuitions do not stem from ignorance or misunderstanding but rather express genuine and considered preferences. We found that (widespread) utilitarian considerations of efficiency should be tempered with a concern for equality and vulnerability.Data availability statementNo data are available.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.Ethics approvalThe study was approved under the Ipsos MORI research ethics committee.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful to Suzanne Hall, Chloe Juliette, Paul Carroll and Tom Cooper at Ipsos MORI, and to Bobby Duffy, Benedict Wilkinson, Alexandra Pollitt and Lucy Strang at the Policy Institute for their input.

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Simply 'Send' this message. If an email message does not appear, send an email to hc.ereview.sc@canada.ca, and request the titled levitra 20mg tablets price document.Guidance documents, notices and supporting documentsAll electronic formats eCTD format onlyDepending on the regulatory activity type of the drug, this may be either the mandatory or recommended format. Non-eCTD format onlyThe alternative electronic format for regulatory activities not mandatory or accepted in eCTD format. Current pilots Consultations and upcoming activities Supporting documents and pages from the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) Additional information.

Companies are required to file submissions electronically to Health Canada in levitra online either Electronic Common Technical Document (eCTD) format or non-eCTD format, depending on the regulatory activity type. The sections below include links to documents that provide detailed information on these formats and other information related to filing submissions electronically. Due to their format, levitra online some documents are only available and labeled as "available upon request".

If you have an email client installed on your computer, when you click the link to these documents, an email message should appear with some information pre-filled. Simply 'Send' this message. If an levitra online email message does not appear, send an email to hc.ereview.sc@canada.ca, and request the titled document.Guidance documents, notices and supporting documentsAll electronic formats eCTD format onlyDepending on the regulatory activity type of the drug, this may be either the mandatory or recommended format.

Non-eCTD format onlyThe alternative electronic format for regulatory activities not mandatory or accepted in eCTD format. Current pilots Consultations and upcoming activities Supporting documents and pages from the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) Additional information.

What side effects may I notice from Levitra?

Side effects that you should report to your prescriber or health care professional as soon as possible.

  • back pain
  • changes in hearing such as loss of hearing or ringing in ears
  • changes in vision such as loss of vision, blurred vision, eyes being more sensitive to light, or trouble telling the difference between blue and green objects or objects having a blue color tinge to them
  • chest pain or palpitations
  • difficulty breathing, shortness of breath
  • dizziness
  • eyelid swelling
  • muscle aches
  • prolonged erection (lasting longer than 4 hours)
  • skin rash, itching
  • seizures

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your prescriber or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

  • flushing
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  • indigestion
  • nausea
  • stuffy nose

This list may not describe all possible side effects.

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The birth a child is a levitra cost per pill wonder, and UC Davis Health’s Brandi Beren says she feels privileged to be a part of that incredible moment for many parents. Working in labor and delivery, she gets to celebrate levitra cost per pill (and sometimes grieve) with the families – and offer essential words of support and encouragement to parents who may be feeling overwhelmed.Hear her talk in-depth about how rewarding her work is, in her own words.In celebration of Florence Nightingale's 200th birthday, 2020 is the Year of the Nurse. Beginning on National Nurses Week (May 6-12) and continuing throughout the year, a special blog will feature the stories, memories and motivations of UC Davis Health nurses.Hear their words, and get to know why and how they invest such heart, passion, expertise and commitment in their life-changing work.UC Davis Health scientists have joined a landmark multicenter clinical trial to test whether a type of stem cell may help reduce inflammation in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a life-threatening lung injury.

They will study the potential role these cells play in reducing the severity of ARDS in patients with and levitra cost per pill without erectile dysfunction treatment. New study to test stem cells’ ability to treat patients with acute lung injuryThe phase III trial, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense and the California levitra cost per pill Institute of Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), is led by Michael Matthay, a professor of pulmonology at UCSF.

At UC Davis Health, it is co-managed by critical care specialists Rachael Callcut, associate professor of surgery and vice chair of clinical sciences, and Timothy Albertson, chair of internal medicine and professor of pulmonology.Mesenchymal levitra cost per pill stromal cells, a type of stem cell, are found in the bone marrow. In laboratory testing, these cells have shown potential benefits for treating lung failure from ARDS. Two prior safety trials, completed in 2015 and 2018, indicated the cells are levitra cost per pill safe.

The current study is to see how effective the cells are for ARDS treatment.“We will test if these cells can reduce inflammation associated with ARDS and help damaged lungs to repair themselves,” said Callcut. €œThe aim is to give extremely ill patients an increased chance of survival.”The deadly outcome of acute respiratory distress syndromePatients levitra cost per pill with ARDS have difficulty breathing. Their lungs fill with fluids, blocking oxygen from getting into the body.

Without enough oxygen, the body can begin to shut down, leading to death.There are many causes for ARDS, such as traumatic injury and pneumonia - including levitra cost per pill those associated with erectile dysfunction treatment. Once a levitra cost per pill patient develops ARDS, their risk of death becomes high. The mortality rate among trauma patients is three times higher in those who develop ARDS than those who do not.

The mortality rate is at least 40% among erectile dysfunction treatment patients who develop ARDS.“For ARDS, aside from supportive care with lung-protective ventilation, there are virtually no treatments levitra cost per pill that reduce mortality,” Callcut said. €œThis is why this trial is so important.”The researchers hope that the cell infusion could decrease the severity of ARDS and lead to improved health outcomes.The UC Davis Health team recently enrolled their first patient for this trial. Recruitment continues among hospitalized patients with significant lung failure due to , trauma or other levitra cost per pill acute illness.“We are fortunate to work on this trial with our partners at the CIRM Alpha Stem Cell Clinic at UC Davis,” Callcut said.

€œWe are especially excited to bring this potential therapy for erectile dysfunction treatment patients to UC Davis.”For more information, contact Callcut at racallcut@ucdavis.edu..

The birth a child is a How to buy zithromax in usa wonder, and UC Davis Health’s Brandi Beren says levitra online she feels privileged to be a part of that incredible moment for many parents. Working in labor and delivery, she gets to celebrate (and sometimes grieve) with the families – and offer essential words of support and encouragement to parents who may be feeling overwhelmed.Hear her talk in-depth about how rewarding her levitra online work is, in her own words.In celebration of Florence Nightingale's 200th birthday, 2020 is the Year of the Nurse. Beginning on National Nurses Week (May 6-12) and continuing throughout the year, a special blog will feature the stories, memories and motivations of UC Davis Health nurses.Hear their words, and get to know why and how they invest such heart, passion, expertise and commitment in their life-changing work.UC Davis Health scientists have joined a landmark multicenter clinical trial to test whether a type of stem cell may help reduce inflammation in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a life-threatening lung injury. They will study the potential role these cells play in reducing the severity of ARDS in patients with and without erectile dysfunction treatment levitra online. New study to test stem cells’ ability to treat patients with acute lung injuryThe phase III trial, sponsored by the U.S.

Department of Defense and the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), is led by Michael Matthay, a professor of pulmonology at UCSF levitra online. At UC Davis Health, it is co-managed by critical care specialists Rachael Callcut, associate professor of surgery and levitra online vice chair of clinical sciences, and Timothy Albertson, chair of internal medicine and professor of pulmonology.Mesenchymal stromal cells, a type of stem cell, are found in the bone marrow. In laboratory testing, these cells have shown potential benefits for treating lung failure from ARDS. Two prior safety trials, completed in 2015 and 2018, indicated levitra online the cells are safe. The current study is to see how effective the cells are for ARDS treatment.“We will test if these cells can reduce inflammation associated with ARDS and help damaged lungs to repair themselves,” said Callcut.

€œThe aim is to give extremely ill patients an increased chance of survival.”The deadly outcome of acute respiratory distress levitra online syndromePatients with ARDS have difficulty breathing. Their lungs fill with fluids, blocking oxygen from getting into the body. Without enough oxygen, the body can begin to shut down, leading to death.There are many causes levitra online for ARDS, such as traumatic injury and pneumonia - including those associated with erectile dysfunction treatment. Once a patient develops ARDS, their risk of death becomes high levitra online. The mortality rate among trauma patients is three times higher in those who develop ARDS than those who do not.

The mortality rate is at least levitra online 40% among erectile dysfunction treatment patients who develop ARDS.“For ARDS, aside from supportive care with lung-protective ventilation, there are virtually no treatments that reduce mortality,” Callcut said. €œThis is why this trial is so important.”The researchers hope that the cell infusion could decrease the severity of ARDS and lead to improved health outcomes.The UC Davis Health team recently enrolled their first patient for this trial. Recruitment continues among hospitalized patients with significant lung failure due to , trauma or other acute levitra online illness.“We are fortunate to work on this trial with our partners at the CIRM Alpha Stem Cell Clinic at UC Davis,” Callcut said. €œWe are especially excited to bring this potential therapy for erectile dysfunction treatment patients to UC Davis.”For more information, contact Callcut at racallcut@ucdavis.edu..

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Shutterstock How do you get amoxil The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration recently awarded the Illinois Department of Human Services a $36.7 million State Opioid Response grant.That grant will be used to fund the expansion of the state’s prevention, treatment, recovery, and levitra effective time overdose response initiatives. This includes programs that deliver prevention and support messages. Provide emergency lifesaving medication for people experiencing an levitra effective time opioid overdose. And helping people recover.“Substance use disorder is a disease – and we must do all that we can to ensure the road to recovery is widely available and accessible,” Gov. JB Pritzker said.

€œThis funding will build on the work of the Department of Human Services and the Department of levitra effective time Public Health in our effort to end the opioid epidemic in Illinois. Nobody is a lost cause, and Illinois won’t stop fighting until all of our residents have the opportunity to live their most fulfilling lives.” The erectile dysfunction treatment levitra has worsened the state’s opioid crisis.The initiatives that will be funded include expanding access to Medication Assisted Recovery services for persons with opioid-use disorders. Providing recovery support services for pregnant levitra effective time and postpartum women with opioid-use disorders. And expanding treatment for people with stimulant use disorder.Shutterstock Pat Ryan, county executive for Ulster County, N.Y., recently proposed a more than $670,000 opioid-use prevention plan as part of the 2021 Executive Budget.Ulster County declared a Public Health Emergency on Aug. 31.

From January through July, levitra effective time opioid-related deaths spiked 171 percent compared to the first seven months of 2019. Of those deaths, 89 percent were attributed to fentanyl.“Now more than ever, it is critical that we do all that we can to ramp up and prioritize combating the opioid epidemic,” Ryan said. €œThat is why when I took office, I made tackling the opioid epidemic one of my Big Five priorities. These funds will go a long way levitra effective time in helping to educate the public, provide needed treatment and support, and to ultimately save lives. Ulster County will not just talk about the issue, we are taking real action and putting funding behind stopping an epidemic that has ripped apart too many families in our community.” As part of the proposal, residents seeking treatment can obtain housing vouchers at local hotels.

Those seeking treatment can seek levitra effective time childcare vouchers. Transportation costs would be offset for residents going to treatment. Access telemedicine would be expanded. And Ulster County’s High Risk Mitigation Team levitra effective time would be expanded.Shutterstock A bipartisan group of members of Congress will take part in several activities, including turning Congress purple, as part of National Recovery Month. Lawmakers will take part in a number of virtual and in-person events throughout the month to bring awareness to those in recovery.

On Sept. 16, Congress members will hold a levitra effective time virtual “Congress Goes Purple” initiative. The second year for the Congress Goes Purple campaign, members will wear purple to bring awareness to the addiction epidemic. Purple is the color associated with levitra effective time recovery, and many communities across the country have started their own “Go Purple” campaigns. Congressmembers taking part include the Bipartisan Opioid Task Force.

The Congressional Addiction, Treatment and Recovery Caucus. And the Bipartisan Freshmen Working Group on Addiction, levitra effective time as well Reps. Brian Fitzpatrick (R-PA), and Sens. Roy Blunt (R-MO) and Debbie Stabenow (D-MI). €œRecovering from addiction is a huge challenge levitra effective time under the best of circumstances, but even more so with the heightened anxiety and reduced access to in-person services during the levitra,” said Blunt.

€œWe worked in a bipartisan, bicameral way to quickly get emergency resources out to states and organizations to help them support people in recovery. I hope National Recovery Month will give us levitra effective time an opportunity to continue raising awareness around this issue and the need for a sustained federal commitment to ensuring people suffering from a mental health or addiction issue are able to get the care they need.”According to the group, one in seven individuals experience addiction at some point in their life, and one in two know someone impacted by addiction. Some 20.2 million Americans identify themselves as someone in recovery from a drug or alcohol use problem. Preliminary numbers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released in July indicate that the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra has created significant barriers to recovery for those with substance use disorder. Social isolation, difficulties in getting in-person treatment, and the inability to meet levitra effective time in-person for peer support groups has negatively impacted those in recovery.

In July, the CDC said 70,000 people died of an overdose in 2019 – a record. The CDC said it anticipates that this year’s number of overdose deaths will exceed that..

Shutterstock The Substance Abuse levitra online and Mental Health Services Administration recently awarded the Illinois Department of Human Services a $36.7 million State Opioid Response grant.That grant will be used to fund the expansion of the state’s prevention, treatment, recovery, and overdose response initiatives. This includes programs that deliver prevention and support messages. Provide emergency lifesaving medication for people experiencing an opioid levitra online overdose.

And helping people recover.“Substance use disorder is a disease – and we must do all that we can to ensure the road to recovery is widely available and accessible,” Gov. JB Pritzker said. €œThis funding will build on the work of the Department of Human Services and the Department of levitra online Public Health in our effort to end the opioid epidemic in Illinois.

Nobody is a lost cause, and Illinois won’t stop fighting until all of our residents have the opportunity to live their most fulfilling lives.” The erectile dysfunction treatment levitra has worsened the state’s opioid crisis.The initiatives that will be funded include expanding access to Medication Assisted Recovery services for persons with opioid-use disorders. Providing recovery levitra online support services for pregnant and postpartum women with opioid-use disorders. And expanding treatment for people with stimulant use disorder.Shutterstock Pat Ryan, county executive for Ulster County, N.Y., recently proposed a more than $670,000 opioid-use prevention plan as part of the 2021 Executive Budget.Ulster County declared a Public Health Emergency on Aug.

31. From January through July, opioid-related deaths spiked 171 levitra online percent compared to the first seven months of 2019. Of those deaths, 89 percent were attributed to fentanyl.“Now more than ever, it is critical that we do all that we can to ramp up and prioritize combating the opioid epidemic,” Ryan said.

€œThat is why when I took office, I made tackling the opioid epidemic one of my Big Five priorities. These funds will go a long way in helping to educate the public, provide needed treatment and support, and to ultimately save lives levitra online. Ulster County will not just talk about the issue, we are taking real action and putting funding behind stopping an epidemic that has ripped apart too many families in our community.” As part of the proposal, residents seeking treatment can obtain housing vouchers at local hotels.

Those seeking treatment can levitra online seek childcare vouchers. Transportation costs would be offset for residents going to treatment. Access telemedicine would be expanded.

And Ulster County’s High Risk Mitigation Team would levitra online be expanded.Shutterstock A bipartisan group of members of Congress will take part in several activities, including turning Congress purple, as part of National Recovery Month. Lawmakers will take part in a number of virtual and in-person events throughout the month to bring awareness to those in recovery. On Sept.

16, Congress members levitra online will hold a virtual “Congress Goes Purple” initiative. The second year for the Congress Goes Purple campaign, members will wear purple to bring awareness to the addiction epidemic. Purple is the color associated with recovery, and many communities across the country have started levitra online their own “Go Purple” campaigns.

Congressmembers taking part include the Bipartisan Opioid Task Force. The Congressional Addiction, Treatment and Recovery Caucus. And the Bipartisan Freshmen Working Group on Addiction, as levitra online well Reps.

Brian Fitzpatrick (R-PA), and Sens. Roy Blunt (R-MO) and Debbie Stabenow (D-MI). €œRecovering from addiction is a huge challenge under the best of levitra online circumstances, but even more so with the heightened anxiety and reduced access to in-person services during the levitra,” said Blunt.

€œWe worked in a bipartisan, bicameral way to quickly get emergency resources out to states and organizations to help them support people in recovery. I hope National Recovery Month will give us an opportunity to continue raising awareness around this issue levitra online and the need for a sustained federal commitment to ensuring people suffering from a mental health or addiction issue are able to get the care they need.”According to the group, one in seven individuals experience addiction at some point in their life, and one in two know someone impacted by addiction. Some 20.2 million Americans identify themselves as someone in recovery from a drug or alcohol use problem.

Preliminary numbers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released in July indicate that the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra has created significant barriers to recovery for those with substance use disorder. Social isolation, levitra online difficulties in getting in-person treatment, and the inability to meet in-person for peer support groups has negatively impacted those in recovery. In July, the CDC said 70,000 people died of an overdose in 2019 – a record.

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With flu season starting as erectile dysfunction treatment continues to spread, many health click over here now experts fear a "twindemic."Getting a flu shot can help avoid that levitra 20mg shelf life. Photo by Brent AnnearFall is here, and so is the flu. With erectile dysfunction treatment still a threat, levitra 20mg shelf life it’s more important than ever to protect yourself from preventable illnesses, like the flu. treatments prevent sickness and make it easier for us to go about our everyday lives.

Here are ten reasons getting the flu shot is so important. 1. Save money. A flu shot is usually free or low cost, whether you have insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, or work for a company that provides the shot to prevent employees from getting sick.

For employees’ sake, not getting the flu means no lost wages or missed work. 2. Less chance of a heart attack. Getting the flu shot reduces your risk of having a heart attack, which occurs more frequently in the weeks following the flu.

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The flu treatment protects pregnant women who are at risk for complications from the flu. Every pregnant woman deserves a pregnancy without fearing for the health of herself and her baby. Women who plan to get pregnant should also get the flu shot. treatments strengthen our ability to fight diseases, and studies show the shot works best among women of childbearing age.

4. Protect newborn babies. The flu shot also helps protect babies under six months who are not yet eligible for a flu shot. When an expectant mom gets a flu shot, the protection gets passed on to her newborn until he or she is old enough to be immunized.

5. Protect older people. It will protect your elderly relatives, who are less likely to receive as much protection from the flu shot as younger people get. If you don’t get the flu, you can’t pass it on to someone.

By getting a flu shot, you help increase your area's herd immunity. Photo by Brent Annear6. Protect people with chronic health conditions. You’ll also protect people who have conditions which can make the flu more serious for them.

These include people with asthma, heart disease, cancer, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS. 7. Help defend your community from illness. The more people that get the flu shot, the stronger your area’s community immunity, or herd immunity is.

Herd immunity is achieved when a large enough portion of the community becomes able to fight off a disease and is therefore less likely to spread it from person-to-person. This protects the whole community, especially those who are less able to fight illness or have chronic diseases. 8. Avoid a hospital stay or doctor visit.

treatments make you less likely to have to go to the doctor or end up in the hospital. Thanks to the flu shot, doctors and other health experts estimate two out of five older adults won’t have to be hospitalized this flu season because of the flu. 9. Protect children.

Influenza can be especially dangerous for children because they can develop complications like pneumonia, dehydration, brain dysfunction, sinus problems, and ear s. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in the past 10 years between 7,000 and 26,000 children younger than 5 years of age were hospitalized with the flu. Although it is rare, kids can die from the flu as well. If your child is afraid of needles, there is a nasal spray flu treatment available for everyone six months and older with no underlying health issues.

Talk to your child’s doctor about which treatment is best.10. Stay active. The flu treatment helps you moving. It may not always prevent the flu, but it can lessen symptoms and shorten sick time.

This means fewer missed work and school days, and more time to do the things you enjoy. Because erectile dysfunction treatment is still spreading as flu season starts, many health experts fear a “twindemic.” While we wait for a erectile dysfunction treatment, there is one for the flu. For more information on the flu shot, view this downloadable poster created in both English and Spanish by the Texas Medical Association’s Be Wise Immunize℠ program. Be Wise – Immunize is funded in 2020 by the TMA Foundation, thanks to major support from H-E-B and Permian Basin Youth Chavarim.Be Wise – Immunize is a service mark of the Texas Medical Association.Influenza affects millions of people each year, and because of the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra, many physicians and health experts are concerned that this year’s flu season will hit with full force.

In the Lone Star State, it’s important for Texans to be proactive about their health by getting the yearly flu vaccination. One of the worst things that could happen would be having many people sick with the flu while many are ill with erectile dysfunction.Flu vaccination is the best way to reduce the risk of getting and spreading the flu. This year, it also will help keep hospitalizations down as physicians, nurses, and other medical staff continue to care for erectile dysfunction treatment patients. Traditionally, Texas falls behind on flu vaccination.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), only 43.3% of Texas adults got a flu shot in 2018-2019, compared to the national average of 45.3%.Although influenza levitraes circulate throughout the year, flu season usually starts in the fall and winter, and peaks between December and February.Like erectile dysfunction treatment, the flu is contagious. Both have some similar symptoms, including fever, chills, cough, fatigue, body aches, vomiting, and diarrhea. People with the flu may not experience symptoms until one to four days after catching the levitra. The CDC outlines key similarities and differences between influenza and erectile dysfunction treatment here.While most people recover from the flu, many can experience complications, especially older adults, people with pre-existing medical conditions, young children, and pregnant women.

If left untreated, infected patients can develop pneumonia, inflammation of the heart, brain, or muscle tissues, organ failure, sepsis, or they could even die. In Texas, more than 21,000 people died from the flu in the past two years. To put that into perspective, that is the population of Katy!. Everyone 6 months or older is encouraged to get the flu treatment each year – especially adults aged 65 and older, pregnant women, young children, and people who have chronic illnesses such as diabetes, asthma, and heart disease.

The CDC is urging the public to get the flu treatment while maintaining social distancing, wearing a mask in public, and practicing good hygiene.People who receive the flu shot may experience some mild side effects like aches and a mild fever, but they can’t get the flu from the shot. Those who get the flu after being vaccinated might have been exposed to the levitra beforehand. The flu vaccination can help lessen flu symptoms and severity, helping reduce the amount of time spent away from work and school.In a time when community health is front and center, getting a flu shot is more important than ever. The Texas Medical Association’s Be Wise Immunize℠ program recently created a downloadable poster below in English and Spanish with key takeaways about the flu vaccination.

You can print the poster, or save it and share it on social media. Be Wise – Immunize is funded in 2020 by the TMA Foundation, thanks to major support from H-E-B and Permian Basin Youth Chavarim.Be Wise – Immunize is a service mark of the Texas Medical Association..

With flu levitra online https://www.serenitygraphic.com/zithromax-250mg-cost season starting as erectile dysfunction treatment continues to spread, many health experts fear a "twindemic."Getting a flu shot can help avoid that. Photo by Brent AnnearFall is here, and so is the flu. With erectile dysfunction treatment still a threat, it’s more important than ever to protect yourself from preventable levitra online illnesses, like the flu.

treatments prevent sickness and make it easier for us to go about our everyday lives. Here are ten reasons getting the flu shot is so important. 1.

Save money. A flu shot is usually free or low cost, whether you have insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, or work for a company that provides the shot to prevent employees from getting sick. For employees’ sake, not getting the flu means no lost wages or missed work.

2. Less chance of a heart attack. Getting the flu shot reduces your risk of having a heart attack, which occurs more frequently in the weeks following the flu.

A recent study that examined more than 80,000 U.S. Adults hospitalized with the flu over eight flu seasons found that one in eight flu patients experienced sudden, serious heart complications. 3.

Protect pregnant women. The flu treatment protects pregnant women who are at risk for complications from the flu. Every pregnant woman deserves a pregnancy without fearing for the health of herself and her baby.

Women who plan to get pregnant should also get the flu shot. treatments strengthen our ability to fight diseases, and studies show the shot works best among women of childbearing age. 4.

Protect newborn babies. The flu shot also helps protect babies under six months who are not yet eligible for a flu shot. When an expectant mom gets a flu shot, the protection gets passed on to her newborn until he or she is old enough to be immunized.

5. Protect older people. It will protect your elderly relatives, who are less likely to receive as much protection from the flu shot as younger people get.

If you don’t get the flu, you can’t pass it on to someone. By getting a flu shot, you help increase your area's herd immunity. Photo by Brent Annear6.

Protect people with chronic health conditions. You’ll also protect people who have conditions which can make the flu more serious for them. These include people with asthma, heart disease, cancer, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS.

7. Help defend your community from illness. The more people that get the flu shot, the stronger your area’s community immunity, or herd immunity is.

Herd immunity is achieved when a large enough portion of the community becomes able to fight off a disease and is therefore less likely to spread it from person-to-person. This protects the whole community, especially those who are less able to fight illness or have chronic diseases. 8.

Avoid a hospital stay or doctor visit. treatments make you less likely to have to go to the doctor or end up in the hospital. Thanks to the flu shot, doctors and other health experts estimate two out of five older adults won’t have to be hospitalized this flu season because of the flu.

9. Protect children. Influenza can be especially dangerous for children because they can develop complications like pneumonia, dehydration, brain dysfunction, sinus problems, and ear s.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in the past 10 years between 7,000 and 26,000 children younger than 5 years of age were hospitalized with the flu. Although it is rare, kids can die from the flu as well. If your child is afraid of needles, there is a nasal spray flu treatment available for everyone six months and older with no underlying health issues.

Talk to your child’s doctor about which treatment is best.10. Stay active. The flu treatment helps you moving.

It may not always prevent the flu, but it can lessen symptoms and shorten sick time. This means fewer missed work and school days, and more time to do the things you enjoy. Because erectile dysfunction treatment is still spreading as flu season starts, many health experts fear a “twindemic.” While we wait for a erectile dysfunction treatment, there is one for the flu.

For more information on the flu shot, view this downloadable poster created in both English and Spanish by the Texas Medical Association’s Be Wise Immunize℠ program. Be Wise – Immunize is funded in 2020 by the TMA Foundation, thanks to major support from H-E-B and Permian Basin Youth Chavarim.Be Wise – Immunize is a service mark of the Texas Medical Association.Influenza affects millions of people each year, and because of the erectile dysfunction treatment levitra, many physicians and health experts are concerned that this year’s flu season will hit with full force. In the Lone Star State, it’s important for Texans to be proactive about their health by getting the yearly flu vaccination.

One of the worst things that could happen would be having many people sick with the flu while many are ill with erectile dysfunction.Flu vaccination is the best way to reduce the risk of getting and spreading the flu. This year, it also will help keep hospitalizations down as physicians, nurses, and other medical staff continue to care for erectile dysfunction treatment patients. Traditionally, Texas falls behind on flu vaccination.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), only 43.3% of Texas adults got a flu shot in 2018-2019, compared to the national average of 45.3%.Although influenza levitraes circulate throughout the year, flu season usually starts in the fall and winter, and peaks between December and February.Like erectile dysfunction treatment, the flu is contagious. Both have some similar symptoms, including fever, chills, cough, fatigue, body aches, vomiting, and diarrhea. People with the flu may not experience symptoms until one to four days after catching the levitra.

The CDC outlines key similarities and differences between influenza and erectile dysfunction treatment here.While most people recover from the flu, many can experience complications, especially older adults, people with pre-existing medical conditions, young children, and pregnant women. If left untreated, infected patients can develop pneumonia, inflammation of the heart, brain, or muscle tissues, organ failure, sepsis, or they could even die. In Texas, more than 21,000 people died from the flu in the past two years.

To put that into perspective, that is the population of Katy!. Everyone 6 months or older is encouraged to get the flu treatment each year – especially adults aged 65 and older, pregnant women, young children, and people who have chronic illnesses such as diabetes, asthma, and heart disease. The CDC is urging the public to get the flu treatment while maintaining social distancing, wearing a mask in public, and practicing good hygiene.People who receive the flu shot may experience some mild side effects like aches and a mild fever, but they can’t get the flu from the shot.

Those who get the flu after being vaccinated might have been exposed to the levitra beforehand. The flu vaccination can help lessen flu symptoms and severity, helping reduce the amount of time spent away from work and school.In a time when community health is front and center, getting a flu shot is more important than ever. The Texas Medical Association’s Be Wise Immunize℠ program recently created a downloadable poster below in English and Spanish with key takeaways about the flu vaccination.

You can print the poster, or save it and share it on social media. Be Wise – Immunize is funded in 2020 by the TMA Foundation, thanks to major support from H-E-B and Permian Basin Youth Chavarim.Be Wise – Immunize is a service mark of the Texas Medical Association..